10th Geography

Remote Sensing

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Maps created by using aerial photographs are called ___ maps Ortho photo

2. The Object under study is known as _________ Target

3. The device to detect the Electro Magnetic Radiation is _____ Sensor

II. Match the following

1. Ground Survey  Many Months
2. Remote Sensing  Short span of time
3. Hot air balloon  French Map makers
4. Airplanes  Systematic aerial images
5. TIROS  USA

II. Short answers:

1. What is meant by remote sensing?

Remote – far away

Sensing – getting information

Remote Sensing can be defined as the collection of data about an object from a distance.

2. What are the disadvantages of ground survey?

The disadvantages of ground survey

Ground survey of resources is hindered by dense forests, rugged terrain, sandy deserts and unpredictable weather.

It takes many months to study.

3. Mention the basic components of remote sensing.

The four basic components of a remote sensing system are

  1. Target,
  2. Energy source,
  3. Transmission path and
  4. a Sensor.

4. Define GIS.

Geographical Information System (GIS) is a systematic integration of Computer Hardware, Software and Spatial Data, for capturing, storing, displaying, updating, manipulating and analyzing all forms of geographically referenced data.

5. Mention any two applications of GIS.

  • Exploration and mining companies use GIS to find prospective areas for exploration and mining.
  • Power Companies use GIS to monitor and analyse the electricity load for particular area.
  • Transport companies use GIS to locate shortest routes for delivering goods and to save time.

6. What are the uses of GPS?

The uses of GPS

  • Surveying, Map-making, Navigation the main civilian use of GPS.
  • Navigation, Target tracking, Missile Search and rescue are the main military use of GPS.
  • GPS a useful tool for commerce, scientific uses, tracking and surveillance.
  • Farmers, surveyors, geologists perform their work more efficiently, safely, economically.

IV. Answer in a paragraph:

1. Write about Remote Sensing Technology.

Remote sensing can be defined as the collection of data about an object from a distance.

  • Geographers use the remote sensing as a tool to monitor or measure phenomena on the Earth’s lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
  • Remote sensing is done with the help of mechanical devices known as sensors.These sensors are positioned in helicopters, planes and satellites.
  • Sensors record electromagnetic energy that is reflected back and radiated from the object on the earth surface. Hence, the most effective technology to gather information on any part of the earth within a short span of time.

2. Explain the various components of remote sensing.

Components of Remote sensing:-

The four basic components of Remote sensing system are target, energy source, transmission path and a sensor.

The target is an object or material that is being imaged. Work together to measure and record information about the target.

Without physical contact.

The energy source provides electromagnetic energy to the target.

Classified into two

  • Passive System (that is sun, irradiance from earth’s materials)
  • Active System (that is energy sources such as radar).
  • The electromagnetic radiation interacts with the target, depending on the properties of the target.
  • Transmit information from the target to the sensor.
  • Sensor is a device to detect the Electro Magnetic Radiation can be classified on the basis of energy received into Passive sensors and Active sensors.
  • Passive sensors detect natural radiation that is emitted or reflected by the object. For eg: Cameras
  • Active sensors transmit their own signal and measure the energy that is reflected from the target for example Radar.

3. Explain the process involves in remote sensing technology

Processes involved in Remote Sensing:-

Sun is a Energy Source (A) first requirement which provides electromagnetic energy to the target of things.

Sunrays and Atmosphere (B) as the energy travels from its source to the target interact with, the atmosphere second time from the target to the sensor.

Sunrays and Objects on Earth (C) energy interacts with the target depending on the properties of both the target and the radiation.

Recording of Energy by the Sensor (D) after energy emitted from the target, the sensor collects and records the electromagnetic radiation.

Transmission, Reception and Processing (E) the energy recorded by the sensor has to be transmitted, and processed into an image (hardcopy and/or digital).

Interpretation and Analysis (F) the processed image is interpreted, to extract information about the target which was illuminated.

Application (G) the final process is achieved by applying the extracted information for better understanding.

4. What are the advantages of remote sensing?

Advantages of Remote Sensing:-

  • This system provides a synoptic view of a wide area in a single frame.
  • Remote sensing systems detect features that cannot be reached by human vision.
  • Cheaper and rapid method of acquiring up to-date and continuous information.
  • Helps the planners for formulating policies and programs.

Enable the cartographers to prepare thematic maps like geological maps, soil maps.

10th Geography

India – Trade, Transport and Communication

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Trade carried on within the domestic territory of a country is known as ___ trade. Internal

2. Trade blocs are created to make the ___ trade easier. Multi-Lateral

3. Cost efficient and most popular mode of transport in our country is __ Roadways

4. The headquarters of Indian Railways is Delhi

5. The costliest and most modern means of transport is Air Transport

II. Match the following

1. Village Road  (Village) Panchayat
2. District Road  Corporations
3. Central Railways  Mumbai
4. Southern Railways  Chennai
5. Northern Railways  Delhi

IV. Short answers

1. What is trade? What are the types of trade?

Trade is an act or process of buying, selling or exchanging goods and services.

The types of trade are internal trade and International trade.

2. State the highlights of India’s foreign trade policy since 2004.

The highlights of India’s foreign trade policy since 2004.

  • Merchandise trade has been doubled.
  • Thrust is given from employment generation, especially in semiurban and rural areas.
  • Trade procedure is simplified and transaction cost is redcued.
  • Special focus is given to make India a global hub.
  • A new scheme called Vishesh Krishi Upaj Yojna has been introduced to boost exports of fruits, vegetables, flowers and minor forest products.

3. Trade, Transport and Communication stand complementary to each other. How?

Growth of trade leads to economic prosperity of a nation. But, trade growth depends on well-developed market, advanced transport and communication system.

4. What is the significance of border roads?

The significance of border roads

  • Constructed and maintained by Border Roads Organisation (BRO) which was set up in 1960 by the Government of India.
  • BRO is regarded as a symbol of nation building, national integration and an inseparable component in maintaining the security of the country.

5. Brief how physiographic plays a role in the distribution of Railway networks in India.

The Physiographic plays a role in the distribution of Railway networks in India.

  • The Himalayan region has rugged terrain and so it is very difficult to lay railway tracks along the steep slopes.
  • Further, the condition in west Rajasthan, frequent flood in Brahmaputra valley thick forest and rough terrain.
  • The northern plains of India is a flat land. Hence, it has a dense network of railways.
  • Peninsular India is a plateau region with an undulated terrain, hence it has a moderate railway network.

6. Write a note on sub-urban railway.

Sub Urban Railway:-

  • Cities in India such as Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Delhi have separate tracks for the sub urban network.
  • Sub urban trains connect the commuters of sub urban areas to the urban centres.
  • They are mostly Electric Multiple Units (EMU).

7. State the merits of pipeline transport.

Advantages of Pipeline Transport:-

  • Pipeline can be laid through difficult terrain as well as under water.
  • Initial cost of laying pipeline is high cost for maintenance and operation is low.
  • Steady supply and minimizes transshipment losses and delays.
  • Pipeline operation involves very low consumption of energy.

8. Mention the important pipeline networks in our country.

There are three important pipeline network in the country:-

  • From oil fields in upper Assam to Kanpur in Uttarpradesh.
  • From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab.
  • Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in uttarpradesh.

9. What are the advantages of communication network?

Advantages of Communication Network:-

  • Communication network has enhanced the efficiency of communication.
  • Leads to enormous growth of trade.
  • Helps the government to tackle various socio-economic problems in the society.
  • Improves the quality of human life.
  • Opens the door to the information age.
  • Promotes Edusat programs.

IV, Answer in a paragraph:

1. Explain India’s trade with reference to her major exports and imports.

India’s trade with reference to her major exports and imports.

Trade is an act or process of buying, selling or exchanging goods and service.

They are internal and international trade

International trade is sub divided into two types such as

1.Bilateral trade

2.Mutilateral trade

Major Export from India

Ores and minerals

Iron ore, Coal, Manganese, Mica, Bauxite

Leather products

Wallets, purses, pouches, handbags, belts, footwear, gloves.

Engineering goods

Machinery, iron and steel, electronic goods, computer software.

Textiles and handicrafts

Readymade garments, cotton, yarn and zari goods.

Major imports of India

Machineries like transport equipment, machine tools, non-electrical machineries.

Pharmaceutical products, Petroleum, fertilizers and newsprints.

2. Classify the Indian roads and Explain.

  • The India Roads are cost efficient and the most popular dominant modes of transport.
  • Road network in India is the second longest in the world accounting for 3.314 million km.
  • Village roads link different villages with the town and it is maintained by village panchayat roads run to a length of 26,50,000kms
  • District Roads links the towns with the district headquarters. They are maintained by the Corporations and Municipalities. District roads length of 4,67,763kms.
  • State Highways links the state capitals with the different district headquarters.
  • constructed and maintained by the State Public Department runs to a length of 1,31,899kms. Eg: Cuddalore-Chittor Road.
  • National Highways links the state capitals with national capital. They are maintained by the Central Public Works Department runs to a length of 70,548kms. For example NH 47.

3. Explain the means of Personal Communication in India.

The means of Personal Communication in India:

  • Personal Communication refers to exchanging between two persons.
  • India Postal Service made its beginning in 1857 and it is the largest network in the world.
  • First class mail includes postcards, inland letters and envelopes.
  • Second class mail includes book packets, registered newspaper.
  • Telegram is a form of written communication by which messages can be sent quickly to distant places.
  • Telephone is a form of oral communication.
  • Mobile phones are very popular in today’s world as it provides an access to the user and receiver at any time, at anywhere.
  • Short Message Services (SMS) is a method by which message can be one cell phone to another.
  • Fax is an electronic device that sends the exact copy of any matter, document to another fax machine to the receiving end.
10th Geography

Environmental Issues

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Natural Nutrient enrichment of streams and lakes is Eutrophication

2. The main cause for natural air pollution Volcanic eruption

3. Contamination of air is called Air pollution

II. Answer the following questions:

1. What is Water pollution?

Water pollution is any chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses or lives in it.

2. List out the major Air pollutants.

The source of pollutants is both natural and man-made.

Volcanic eruptions, wind erosion, are the natural causes of air pollution.

The man-made reasons for air pollution are vehicular emission, thermal power plants, industries and refineries.

3. What is Noise pollution?

Human or machine created sound that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life is known as noise pollution.

4. What are the major causes of water pollution?

The major causes of water pollution

The first are disease-causing agents. These are bacteria, viruses, protozoa and parasitic worms.

Second pollutant is oxygen demanding bacteria. This causes other organisms in the water such as fish to die.

The third class of water pollutants is water soluble inorganic pollutants such as acids, salts and toxic metals.

5. What is bio diversity?

Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem.

Acquired land for mining affects biodiversity.

Environmental changes due to mining and dam constructions cause extinctions.

6. How pollution is caused due to bio-medical waste?

Pollution due to biomedical waste is likely to spread diseases dangerous to life.

Eg. The radiation of radio therapy machine cobalt-60 which was sent scarpyard caused death of a scarpyard worker in Delhi hospital.

7 What is meant by pollution due to e-waste?

India produces about 3,80,000 tonnes of e-waste generated out of television sets, mobile phones, computers, refrigerators and printers. This is great threat for human as it is non-degradable

III. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. What are the effects of acid rain?

The effects of acid rain

  • Acid rains killed more than 70% of corals in Lakshadweep and Andaman islands.
  • Microscopic organisms such as plankton may not survive the food chain will be affected.
  • If ocean temperature increases, growth of coral reefs will be affected.
  • Other ecosystems such as forests and desert will also be harmed.
  • Loss of bio-diversity and extinction of rare species will occur.
  • They also change the acidity level of the soil by leaching crucial nutrients. Thus it affects forest vegetation.
  • Corals control carbon-di-oxide by turning CO2 in water to limestone shell.

2. What is smog? What are the effects of smog?

  • Smog is a combination of the words smoke and fog.
  • It causes a smoky dark atmosphere.
  • It decreases visibility, and creates gaze throughout the area.

Major producers

Automobiles, fires, waste treatment, oil production, industrial solutions, paints and coatings.

The effects of smog:-

  • Smog creates harmful health hazards like lung failure and pneumonia.
  • Smog is not only a city problem wind carry smog away from urban areas and harm other areas too.
  • Agriculture is also affected by smog.

3. Give a brief note on Acid rain.

Acid rain:-

  • Acid rain was first discovered in 1852 in London.
  • Caused by gases given out by automobiles or coal burning by power plants.
  • The gases that cause the acid rain is sulphur-di-oxide and nitrogen oxides.
  • These pollutants combine with water vapour in the presence of sunlight and oxygen and form dilute sulphuric and nitric acids.
  • When these mixture precipitates from the atmosphere, it is called as acid rain.
  • Acid rain falls down to the earth in all forms of precipitation can harm destroy both natural ecosystems and man-made products.
  • Acid rains, killed more than 70% of corals in Lakshadweep and Andaman islands.
10th Geography

INDIA – INDUSTRIES

I. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

1. Cotton textile industry is  agro based

2. Manchester of India is Mumbai

3. Tata Iron and Steel industry is located at Jamshedpur

4. Chota Nagpur Plateau is noted for Mineral resource

5. The city known as Electronic Capital is Bangalore

II. MATCH THE FOLLOWING

1. Jute industry  West Bengal
2. Cotton industry  Mumbai
3. Software Industry  Bangalore
4. Tata Iron and Steel Industry  Jamshedpur
5. Sugar bowl of India  Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

IV. Short answers:

1. Define manufacturing.

Manufacturing is defined as the process of converting raw materials into finished products.

Eg. iron ore into iron then into machinery

2. Name the factors that determine location of an industry.

The location of an industry is determined by raw material, power, transport, man power, water, market and government policies.

3. What are agro based industries? Give examples.

Agro based industries:-

These industries use agricultural products as their basic raw material. For example, Cotton textile industry, jute industry, sugar industry etc.

4. Name any five software centers.

Main centers are Chennai, Coimbatore, Thiruvananthapuram, Bangalore, Mysore, Hyderabad, Vishakhapatnam, Mumbai, Pune, Bhubaneswar, Indore, Gandhinagar, Jaipur, Kolkata, Noida, Mohali and Srinagar.

5. What are the byproducts of the Jute industry?

Jute products include gunny bags, canvas, pack sheets, jute webs, Hessians, carpets, cordage.

V. detail:

1. Write an account of Iron and Steel industries of India.

Account of iron and steel industries of India

  • Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) was set up at Jamshedpur in 1907 now it is called Tata Steel limited. It is oldest and largest integrated iron and steel plant in India. The company produces pig iron and steel.
  • Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO) was set up at Burnpur in 1919. Company produces pig iron and crude steel control was taken over by SAIL.
  • Visveshwaraya Iron and Steel limited (VISL) set up in 1923 at Bhadravati in Karnataka. It’s major products are alloy and special steel.
  • The Vijayanagar steel plant has been set up Tornagai in Karnataka.
  • The Salem Steel Plant located at Salem in Tamil Nadu in 1982.
  • Major producers of the world class stainless steel.
  • The Vishakhapatnam Steel Plant came into operation in 1992. And first plant in the shore region. It is a major export oriented steel plant.

2. Describe the factors encouraging cotton textile industry in Mumbai.

The following factors favour the cotton textile industries in Mumbai:

  • Location of port facilities for the export of finished goods.
  • Well connected through rail and road links with cotton growing areas.
  • Humid coastal climate favours yarning.
  • Availability of Capital goods and finance.
  • Availability of man power.

3 Give an account of Software industry in India.

  • An account of software industry in India
  • It has emerged as a major industry.
  • The main reason due to the availability of cheap and skilled young software professionals in our country.
  • “Electronic Parks” is established different parts of our country.
  • The main centers are Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Pune, Mohali and Srinagar.
  • At present there are more than 500 Software firms in the country.
  • Expected to generate a total employment of around six million.
  • Today the software industry exports software to nearly 95 countries.
  • The Government has also played a vital role in the development of software industry.
  • It has contributed 9% of GDP for India national income
10th Geography

India – Agriculture

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Rice is grown well in the _____ alluvial soil

2. Tea and coffee crops are grown well on the _____ mountain slopes

3. The crop that grows in drought is _____ millets

4. Cotton is a _____ cash crop

5. The staple food crops are _____ rice & wheat

II. Match the following:

1. Wheat  Punjab
2. Sugarcane  Uttar Pradesh
3. Apple  Himachal Pradesh
4. Rubber  Kerala
5. Jute  West Bengal

III. Give Short answers:

1. What are the major determinant factors of agriculture?

Major determinant factors of agriculture:

  • Land form
  • Climate
  • Soil types
  • Water

2. What are the types of agriculture?

Types of agriculture: Four different types of farming are generally practiced in our country and they are:

  • Primitive agriculture
  • Subsistence agriculture
  • Commercial agriculture
  • Plantation agriculture

3. Name the agricultural seasons in India?

The agricultural seasons in India

  • Kharif – June to November
  • Rabi – November to March
  • Zaid – March to June

4. Why dry crops are grown?

They grow well even in the infertile soil. They are drought resistant crops, example – Millets.

5. Name the cotton growing areas of India.

The cotton growing areas of India are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana.

6. What are plantation crops?

  • Tea, Coffee and Rubber
  • Single crop raised at a time
  • These plantations are mainly owned by the companies

V. Write a paragraph answer:

1. What are the benefits of adopting bio-technology in agriculture?

The benefits adopting biotechnology in agriculture are,

  • Adopting Biotechnology is environmentally safe and sustainable.
  • Water requirement for the crop is minimized.
  • It makes crops more resistant to insects, pests and diseases.
  • The yield of the crops per hectare can be decreased.
  • Farmers can get more income.

2 Discuss any three current challenges in Indian agriculture?

Challenges for Indian Agriculture:-

  • Indian agriculture experience gamble of monsoon it exerts a very unfavourable influence on agriculture because of unevenly distributed and uncertain.
  • The serious drainage problem caused by construction of roads, railways and canals disturbed the natural drainage system. This results in large scale damage to kharif crops.
  • Rapid increase in industries and residential buildings reduce the extent of cultivable lands.
  • Global climatic changes affect agricultural crops, soil, livestock and pests.
10th Geography

INDIA – NATURAL RESOURCES

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The soil found in the Arid Zone is known as Desert soil

2. The Monsoon forests are otherwise called as Deciduous forest

3. Which one of the following mineral is contained in the Monazite and Uranium

II. Match the following:

1. Black soil  Cotton cultivation
2. Lignite  A type of coal
3. Mangrove forest  Sundarbans
4. Renewable resources  Sun
5. Non renewable resources  Petroleum

IV. Short answers:

1. What do you understand by the term natural resources?

“All materials obtained from the nature to satisfy the needs of our daily life” is known as Natural resources. Land, Air, Water, Sunlight, Soil, Minerals coal, petroleum, Plants.

2. What are the properties of fertile soil?

Soil fertility is determined by the presence of “micro nutrients” and “macro nutrients”.

3. Name any four main characteristics of the tropical evergreen forest.

Characteristics of the tropical evergreen forest.

  • These forest are found where the rainfall is more than 200cms
  • They do not shed their leaves
  • The trees reach up to the height of 60mts
  • The sunlight cannot reach the ground due to dense forest.
  • Mahogany, ebony, rubber & bamboo

4. Give the meaning of shrub and thorn forest.

  • These forests are found mainly in those areas where the average annual rainfall is less than 75cm with the long dry season.
  • The trees are scattered in these forests.
  • They have long roots tap water in the underground.

5. Name the mica producing areas of India.

Major mica producing states of India are Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Bihar and Rajasthan.

V. Answer the following paragraph:

1. Write the importance of forest

Importance of Forests:-

  • Forests provide valuable timber for domestic and commercial use.
  • It supplies a number of products such as Medicines, Herbs, Honey and Spices.
  • Export of forest products earns valuable foreign exchange.
  • Grazing cattle in the forests helps in dairy farming.
  • Many forest reserves have been developed into tourist centres.
  • Forest observe carbon-di-oxides and help in controlling air pollution.
  • Forests help in controlling soil erosion, flood control.
  • Forests provide natural habitats to primitive tribes, animals and birds.
  • Forests are the moderators of climate.

2. Describe the need for the conservation of natural resources?

The need for the conservation of natural resources

  • To maintain ecological balance for supporting life.
  • To preserve different kind of species (biodiversity)
  • To make the resources available for present and future generation.
  • To ensure the survival of human race.
10th Geography

INDIA – CLIMATE

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. India experiences Tropical Monsoon Climate

2. The coastal areas enjoy Equable

3. The place that gets rain from Western disturbance is Punjab

4. The mountains which lie parallel to the direction of the Southwest Monsoon Wind is Aravalli

5. The local storms in the northeastern part of India during hot weather season are called Norwesters

II. Match the following

1. Burst of Monsoon  June to September
2. Norwesters  Local Storms in Northeast India
3. Water conservation activities  Total involvement of local people
4. The North East Monsoon Season  October to February
5. Highest rainfall place  Mawsynram in Cherrapunji

IV. Answer the following questions:

1. Name the factors determining the climate of India.

The factors determining the climate of India

  • Latitude
  • Altitude
  • Distance from the sea
  • Wind
  • Position of Mountains

2. What do you mean by Monsoon?

Monsoon is the world derived from Arabic word Mausim means season. The winds which blow in a particular season from particular direction reverses from summer and winter.

Example- south west monsoon & north east monsoon

3. What are the main features of tropical monsoon type of climate?

The salient features of Tropical monsoon climate:-

  • The Monsoon winds are classified into Southwest Monsoon and Northeast Monsoon on the basis of the direction from where they blow.
  • They are caused due to the differential heating of land and sea.
  • The main feature of monsoon winds is alternation of seasons which determines the climate of the India.

4. What are Jet Streams and how do they affect the climate of India?

Jet Streams:-

Air currents in the upper layers of the atmosphere is known as Jet streams. It could determine the arrival and departure of monsoon winds in India.

5. Name the regions of heavy rainfall in India.

The regions of heavy rainfall in India:-

Middle Ganga Valley,

Western Ghats,

Eastern Maharashtra,

Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.

6. What do you mean by the “Burst of Monsoon”?

South west monsoon winds are moisture laden winds, when they approach southern part of Kerala it causes violent thunderstorm indicating the onset of monsoon. This is called as monsoon burst.

V. Answer the following in a paragraph each:

1. Analyze any two features determining the climate of India

Altitude:-

Temperature decreases with increasing at the rate of 1degree of Celsius for every 165

The places situated at the higher altitudes are cooler as compared to places in plains.

Eg. Delhi and Shimla located at the same region but at different altitude.

Distance from the sea:-

The places to the north of Tropic of cancer, experience “continental climate” summer is extremely hot winter is extremely cold due to the location in far from the sea.

The places to the South of Tropic enclosed on the three sides by Arabian sea, Indian ocean and Bay of Bengal, experiences “Equable climate”.

Position of the mountains:-

Positions of mountains play a vital role in determining the climate of any place. For example,

The great Himalayan range in the North India obstructs the bitter cold winds from central Asia to India.

2. Give the characteristic features of monsoon winds.

FEATURES OF THE MONSOON:-

Uneven distribution of rainfall during the year:-

The South West monsoon causes over 80 percent of the rainfall over the country during June to September

Influence of Mountains:-

The winds strike the Western Ghats and bring heavy rainfall on the windward side.

Gujarat and Rajasthan receives little rainfall due to absence of mountains.

Tropical Cyclone:-

The intensity and distribution of rainfall are determined by a series of tropical depressions or Tropical Cyclone.

Erratic Nature of the rainfall:-

It is difficult to make any general statement describing the rainfall in any areas which received heavy rainfall in one season may experience drought rain may be delayed.

Sometime the rain disappears.

Monsoon rains have great effect on the country’s economy:-

The prosperity of India depends on the success or failure of the Monsoon.

3. Describe any one of the branch of South West Monsoon.

Arabian Sea Branch:-

  • It is one of the branch of South west Monsoon.
  • The more powerful Arabian Sea brings heavier rainfall.
  • It strikes against the Western Ghats
  • This moisture laden wind ascend the slopes gives heavy rainfall to western coastal region. Mumbai gets 150cms heavy rainfall.
  • The second part blow through the Vindhya-Satpura strikes Rajmahal cause heavy rainfall in Chotanagpur region.
  • The third part moves towards Rajasthan where the Aravalli stand parallel to the direction of this wind does not give any rain to Rajasthan.
  • This wind combines with the Bay of Bengal branch obstructed by the Shiwalik hills gives a good rainfall.

4. Describe rain water harvesting.

Rain Water Harvesting:-

  • India experiences Tropical monsoon type of climate. It gives a seasonal rainfall.
  • It is highly erratic with scanty rainfall.
  • It is necessary to save rain water.
  • We must allow this water to penetrate into deep water table and tap this water when it is needed.
  • To prevent surface run-off we must harvest the rainwater for future.
  • Rain harvesting is direct collection and storage of water recharged into the ground for withdrawal later.
  • Through the rain harvesting we can understand the real value of rain.

5. What is water management? Give the basic requirement of Water conservation.

WATER MANAGEMENT:-

  • Water management implies the best use of available water controlling its depletion and degradation for our future.
  • Water is an indispensable resource it is important to manage water resources in an integrated manner. Water management must be under taken at all levels.
  • The basic requirements for water conservation activities are:
  • The total involvement, co-operation and participation of all local people.
  • The role of women in managing house hold water needs.
  • To treat water an economic commodity
  • To be used in the profitable and satisfying manner.
  • In the distribution both equity and quality must be ensured.
  • We can save the water through “rain water harvesting” strategy.
10th Geography

India Location and Physiography

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The Bay of Bengal is located to the____________ of India South-east

2. Palk Strait separates India form____________ Sri Lanka

3. The most centrally located meridian is passes through the Allahabad

4. The highest peak in India Mt. Godwin Austin

5. The source of River Ganga Gangotri

6. The Himalayas are known as Abode of snow

II. Match the following

1. Pilgrim Centre  Kedarnath
2. Terai plain  Marshy Land
3. Western Ghats in Karnataka  Shayadri
4. Lava Plateau  Deccan
5. Largest lake in Kerala  Vembanad

IV. Answer the following questions briefly:

1. What are the main physical divisions of India?

They are:

  • Northern mountains
  • Northern Great Plains
  • Peninsular Plateaus
  • Coastal plains
  • Islands

2. Write any two points on the importance of the Himalayas.

The importance of the Himalayas.

  • The Himalayas prevent south west monsoon and causes snow fall and rain.
  • It forms the natural boundary for the sub-continent.
  • Most of the rivers that originate are perennial. Ex. Ganga and Yamuna.

3. Name a few well known holy places in the Northern Mountains of India.

Holy places in the Northern Mountains of India

  • Kedharnath
  • Badrinath
  • Amarnath
  • Vaishnavidevi temple

4. Name the rivers that do not form a delta on the west coast of India.

The rivers that do not form a delta on the west coast of India.

Narmada and Tapti

5. Name the islands belonging to India.

The islands belonging to India are

  1. Andaman & Nicobar island
  2. Lakshadweep island

V. Answer the following questions in a Paragraph:

1. “India is a sub-continent” – Justify.

India, a subcontinent:-

  • A continent possesses distinct characteristics of diverse,
  • Physical features,
  • Climatic conditions,
  • Natural vegetation,
  • Mineral resources,
  • Human habitations,
  • Cultural norms,
  • Ancient ethnic and linguistic groups and
  • Huge area.

These characteristics are found in India. Hence we consider India as a subcontinent.

2. “Unity in Diversity” – Explain.

Unity in Diversity:-

Land forms:-

India has unique land forms ranging from the highest peaks. Mount Godwin Austin is the highest plain and the Malabar Coastal Plains are the smallest plains.

Climate:-

The climate varies in India from the tropical to the temperate zone. Cherrapunji receives the highest rainfall and The Thar desert receives very low rainfall.

Forest:-

We have wet dense tropical forest on the Western Ghats, mangrove in the Sunderbans, shrubs in the That Desert.

Ideal habitat:-

India an ideal habitat for varieties of flora and fauna.

Secular country:-

India is a secular country with total freedom of worship. In spite of its physical, religious and racial varieties, the “Indian Culture” unites all the people. Hence India is known for her “Unity in diversity”.

3. Explain the origins of the Himalayas.

The origins of the Himalaya

  • Millions of years ago, there was only one large land mass called “Pangea”.
  • Surrounded by a water body, known as “Panthalassia”.
  • This large land mass split up into two parts.
  • Northern part known as “Angara land”
  • Southern part known as “Gondwana land”.
  • This large land mass split up the Tethys Sea which deposited their silts.
  • Due to tectonic forces uplifted to form Fold Mountains called the Himalayan ranges.

4. Mention the importance of Himalayas

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE HIMALAYAS:-

  • The presence of the Himalayas in north pre vents southwest monsoon winds and cause rainfall and snowfall.
  • If this mountain is absent, India would have been a hot and dry desert.
  • Himalayas forms a natural boundary for the sub-continent.
  • It is permanently frozen and it is a barrier to invasion.
  • Most of the rivers that originate are perennial. Ex. Ganga and Yamuna.
  • It has many hill resort and pilgrimage centers promotes tourism.
  • It provides timber to human and shelter to wildlife.

5. Write short notes on Northern plains of India.

Northern Great Plains:-

  • The Northern Great Plains are located at the south of the Himalayas.
  • It extends over a length of 2,400km.
  • It formed by the deposits of Indus, the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers.
  • It covers an area of over 7 lakh sq.km
  • Important characteristics:-
  • Bhabar (unassorted sediments)
  • The Bhabar lies along the foothills at about 8 to 16km wide. The rivers, disappears in the bhabar tract is marked by dry river courses.
  • The Terai is a marshy tract, where underground streams reappear.
  • The Bhagar represents older alluvium.
  • The Khadar is the newer alluvium.

Northern Plains can be divided into the following regions

  • Rajasthan plain
  • Punjab-Haryana plain
  • Ganga plain
  • Brahmaputra plain

6. Write a brief about Peninsular Plateau.

Peninsular Plateaus:-

  • The peninsular plateau is located to the south of northern Great Plains.
  • It is triangular in shape and covers an area of about 16lakh sq.km.
  • It is surrounded by hill ranges on all sides, the Aravalli, Vindhya, Satpura and Rajmahal ranges in the north, Western Ghats the west and the Eastern ghats in the east.
  • The average height of this plateau 600-900mts above sea level.
  • The general slope is from west to east.
  • The Narmada River divides the peninsular plateau into two unequal parts. The northern part is called the ‘Central Highlands’ and the south part is called the ‘Deccan Plateaus’.
9th Geography

CONVERSATION OF RESOURCES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. In Tamil Nadu soil erosion by Wind is very common in kambam valley.

2. For constant supply of forest product in a region at least one third of the area should be under forest.

3. Seasonal shearing of fur of animal in capacity is conservation.

4. Protecting animals in their in their habitat is in preservation

5. Garganey, Teals and Shovallers are migratory birds.

II. Match the following

1. Gulf of mannar Marine sanctuary
2. Point Calimere ` Bird sanctuary
3. Agastiyamalai Biosphere reserve
4. Mudumalai Elephant reserve
5. Mundanthurai Tiger reserve
9th Geography

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The surrounding in which organisms live and interact is called Environment.

2. The process of clearing the forests by human is called as Deforestation.

3. The process by which eco system species become extinct is Loss of biodiversity.

4. The excessive use of artificial fertilizer greatly reduces the quality of soil.

II. Match the following:

1. Global warming -CO2

2. Deforestation -Coastal flooding

3. Automobile -air pollution

4. Water pollution -pesticides

5. Urbanisation -unauthorized encroachments

III.ANSWER IN BRIEF:

1. What are the major environmental issues?

  • Urbanization
  • Deforestation
  • Environmental pollution
  • Global warming

2. What is global warming?

Global warming is defined as an increase in the atmospheric temperature near the earth surface due to rise in carbon dioxide levels and green house effects.

3. What is Deforestation?

Deforestation simply means cutting down a tree.

It has seriously affected the quality of environment by increasing the temperature, decreasing rainfall, top soil erosion, flash flood.

4. Name some of green house effect?

Carbon-di-oxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide and Chloro-fluoro-carbon.

5. What is pollution?

Substances released into an environment that cause harm to living organism and built up structures are called pollution.

6. What is urbanization?

It refers to increasing inhabitants of people with non agricultural occupation with a higher population density than the surrounding regions.

7. What are the main threats to biodiversity?

Uncontrolled commercial exploitation of natural resources like forest, coastal areas, wet lands.

8. What are the sources of land pollution?

Land pollution is the contamination of land by solid wastes.

IV. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING:

1. What are the effects of the global warming?

Heat waves and fluctuating weather causes diseases and warming up of Antarctic and Arctic ocean.

Sea level rise coastal flooding due to glaciers melting coral reefs bleaching due to the change in the ecosystem frequent drought fire and heavy snowfall.

2. What is the main objectives of the biosphere reserves?

The main objectives of the reserves is to conserve the genetic diversity of species and to restore degraded ecosystems to their natural and original conditions.

To protect the biosphere, biosphere reserves have been set up in the Nilgiris and Gulf of Mannar.

3. Mention the areas of water pollution in Tamil Nadu and what steps have been taken by the government to stop it?

  • The indiscriminate discharge from textile bleaching and dyeing units in and around Tiruppur, Erode and Karur areas have caused polluting the river system of Noyyil and Amaravathi
  • Effluents from tanneries for land quality deterioration in the river palar basin of Vellore district
  • Most towns located along the banks of major rivers causes sewage pollution.
  • The Kaveri river receives sewage from eleven towns, Palar from six towns, Vaigai from five towns and Tamirabarani from three towns.