9th History

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

I. CHOOSE IT

1. During industrial revolution production became faster

2. England is birth place of the industrial revolution.

3. Great Britain is an Island

4. Cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney

5. In 1830 the first passenger railway was operated

II. MATCH IT

1. John kay – Flying shuttle

2. James watt – New steam engine

3. Faraday – Dynamo

4. Macadam – Road

5.  Humphrey davy – safety lamp

III. HEADINGS

1. Textile industry

a) What was the first momentum from the outburst of invention?

Cotton textile industries

b) By whom flying shuttle wass invented?

John kay

c) Who invented sewing machine?

Elias howe

d) When was cotton gin invented?

1793

2. Invention in powers

a) Who invented a new steam engine in 1769?

James Watt

b) By whom safety lamp was invented?

Humphrey Davis

c) What did Bersemer invented in 1855?

Method of making steel

d) Who introduced the pudding process for the purification of pig iron?

Henry Cort

IV. BRIEF

1. What is meant by Industrial revolution?

It refers to shift from an agrarian, handicraft, labour intensive economy into one dominated by machine manufacturers factories and a free flow of capital.

2. What was the result of the expansion of commerce?

  • Foundation for the rapid expansion of Trade.
  • Encourage the scientists to invent machines.
  • Gave birth to capitalism.
  • The people produced goods on large scale.

3. Write a note on Revolution in agriculture?

  • The new farm machinery included the steel plough and harrow. Machines for reaping and threshing.
  • The practice of crop rotation was adopted to maintain soil fertility.

4. What is the motive behind Socialism?

  • The motive behind socialism is that there should be just distribution of wealth.
  • The gap between the rich and the poor.

5. Who was Karl Marx? What was his theory?

  • Karl Marx who is a socialist of Germany.
  • His theory is based on the assumption that production and physical forces have an intimate relationship, and the surplus value of products should go in favor of the working class.

V.ANSWER IN PARAGRAPH:

1. What were the causes for industrial revolution?

  • The term industrial revolution refers to the shift from an agrarian handicraft, labor intensive economic into one dominated by machine manufacture factors and the free flow of capital.
  • Innovation in agricultural methods
  • Agriculture becomes more and more capitalist enterprise.
  • The demand for English goods went on increasing.
  • More efficient agriculture and better food distribution.
  • The progress of science revolutionized the method of production.

2. What were the effects of Industrial Revolution?

  • The changes in agricultural production, business organization and technology.
  • Pollution affected the health of people.
  • The industrial found more profitable to employ woman and children in the factories.
  • The society create two distinct classes, they are Capitalist and laborers.

THE POLITICAL EFFECTS:

  • The factory acts passed in 1819, 1933 and 1847to improve the conditions of laborers.
  • In 1825 trade unions were organized to fight for their rights.

ECONOMICAL EFFECTS:

  • The establishments of factories like Manchester, Lancashire, Birmingham and Sheffield.
  • The Industrial Revolution made the “rich richer and poor poorer”
  •  

3. Mention some important scientific inventions were made during industrial Revolution.

INDUSTRY NAME INVENTION YEAR
1. TEXTILE John Kay Eli Whitney Flying Shuttle Cotton Gin 1773 1793
2. STEAM James Watt   Faraday Redesigned Newcomen’s steam engine Dynamo 1769   1831
3. IRON AND STEEL John Seaton Humphrey Davis Improved Derby process Safety lamp 1760 1860
4. TRANSPORT John Macadam Macadamized roads  
9th History

CULTURAL HERTITAGE OF TAMIL NADU

I.CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

1.Tamil language has the continuous history of atleast 2500 years.

2. The kalabhras were replaced by the pallavas at kanchi in north Tamil Nadu.

3. The pallava inscription at kudimian malai refers to a Great musician Rudracharya.

4. The pallava gave importantance to Sanskrit.

5. Tholkappiam describes the social condition of the sangam tamils.

II. MATCH THE FOLLOWING:

1. Pattinam coastal region
2. Panar musician
3. Koothu drama
4. Viraliar dance
5. Mullai forest region

III.CAPTION:

1. Sangam literature

a) Name the two great epics of the sangam literature?

Silapadhikaram , manimegalai

b) How many major epics are there in sangam literature?

5

c) What are the tamil works that mention war and love?

Ettuthogai and pattupattu

d) Write a note on Bhakti literature?

Thevaram, Thiruvasagam, Divyaprabhandham propogate, Saivaism and Vaishnavism.

2. Sangam society

a) Who were the people of kurinji region?

Kuravar (or) Vedas

b) How was the cultural regions called?

Marudham

c) Which book throws light on the social condition of the sangam Tamils?

Tholkappiam

d) What are the five thinais?

Mullai, Marudham, Kurunji, Neidal, Pallai

IV. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING:

1. Write a note on Tamil language.

The Tamil language and literature are noted for their antiquity. The sangam poets like Mamulanar belonged to the age of Nandas and Mauryas i.e., 4th century B.C.

2. Name the important temples during the Chola period

The Cholas were ardent saivities who built magnificent temples for Siva, of them Brahadeeswarar Temple, Gangaikondacholapuram.

3. Write a note on Kalabharas.

The Kalabharas are uprooted the Tamil kingdom in the second phase (3rd century A.D TO 6TH CENTURY A.D.). However the Tamil literacy activities continued during their regime too.

4. What were the revenues of Kingdoms?

There was a regular system of revenue administration. Besides the loot form the was excise, tolls duties on salt, periodical gifts and tributes contributed the revenues of king.

5. What is Siddha system of medicine?

Siddha system of medicine was used to cure the diagnosis treatment and also provided pharmalogical details.

6. Write a short note on Sangam music.

The sangam tamil had their own system of music.

The Panar and Vinayar were professional musician and dancer.

V. ANSWER IN PARAGRAPH

1. Explain the administrative system of the people of the sangam age.

  • The sangam age had monarchial government with an absolute monarchy as the head, who had no checks on his authority. However, the king was amendable to the advice of wise men in court.
  • The king’s court known as Avai, Naalavai, Mandram etc. consisted of ministers, generals, high officials, chief queen, heir apparent and junior princess. The king had no standing army. Compulsory a military service was imposed during the time of war. The royal army was categorized into four wings.

2. Write a note on cultural contribution of Cholas.

  • The imperial Cholas developed the style further, elaborate campuses, protected walls, pillared hall, huge tower and multi shrines.
  • All these temples have excellent sculptural representation.
  • The Sittanavasal caves Kailasanadhar temple and Brihadeeswar have the best specimens of paints.
  • The Tamil Nadu had developed their own system of mathematics, time calculation, astronomy and medicinal system.
  • The Chola bronze of image of Nataraja, Siva, Vishnu and other deities have earned the global acclaim.
9th History

BEGINNING OF MODERN AGE

I.CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER:

1. Which was the birth place of renaissance?

Italy

2. Who was responsible for reformation?

Martin Luther King

3. In which year Constantinople was captured by the Turks?

1452 A.D

4. Who painted the famous painting ‘mono lisa’?

Leonarda da vinci

5. Who founded a religious order society of Jesus?

Ignatius loyala

6. In which year vasco da gama reached Calicut?

1498

II.CAPTIONS:

1. Renaissance in Italy

a) Which is the school of Europe?

Italy

b) Who was the first great pioneer of classical art?

Petrarch

c) Who was the doctor of Charles V, wrote seven books?

Andrew Vesalius

d) Who was noted for his mastery of colour?

Titan

2. Reformation

a) What was the immediate cause for the Lutheran revolt?

Sale and indulgence

b) Who were called ‘ protestants’?

Followers of Lutheran

c) What were the sacraments reduced from seven to three?

Baptism, marriage and communion

d) Who was Johann Tetzel?

Priest

3. Society of Jesus

a) Who founded the society of Jesus?

Ignatius Loyala

b) In which year it was founded?

1540

c) How many members (Jesuits) enrolled in the society of Jesus?

60

d) Who were the agents in propagating the counter reformation?

Jesuits

4. New discoveries

a) Who named cape of good hope?

Bartholomew Diaz

b) What was the name of the Christopher Columbus discovery?

The New World

c) What were the names of the Christopher Columbus’s three ships?

The santa maria, the nina and the pinta

d) Which Portuguese explorer named pacific ocean?

Ferdinand Magellan

IV. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING:

1. What are the two broad division in the Renaissance movement?

The two broads division in the Renaissance movement are humanistic phase or the revival of classical learning and literature and regulation of classical art.

2. Write a short note on paintings.

Leonardo Davinci famous paintings are Mona Lisa and Last supper.

Raphael was famous for his paintings for Madonnas.

Titan was noted for the mastery of colour.

3. What was the important scientific invention during Renaissance period?

Copernicus discovered that the earth moves around the sun.

Galileo perfected the telescope.

Newton discovered the law of gravitation.

4. Define Renaissance.

Renaissance means revival or rebirth, the age of reason marks the revival of classical Greeks and roman spirit.

5. Define the council of trend.

It aimed at reforming the Catholic church.

Thought it failed to bring about unity in Christendom, it gave a clear definition to catholic doctrine

After the council of trend, the pop was recognized as the supreme arbiter in religious matter.

6. What were the effects of new voyages?

In order to root out heresy, the church court inquisition meted out brutal punishment.

The Spanish inquisition was founded during the time of Ferdinand and Isabella.

The church also prepared an index of hierarchal books and passages hierarchal writing were prohibited for the believers.

V. ANSWER IN A PARAGRAPH:

1. Write a paragraph on Humanism during the Renaissance period.

A shift from God centered and church centered literary activities to human centered literacy trends are known as Humanism.

In the medieval age, owing to the influence of the Church, the spirit of spiritualism, escapism and worship of God. People began to think more of the other world than this one.

2. What were the results of the Renaissance?

The study of classical languages developed a spirit of enquiry in the minds of people.

Renaissance created a passion for reason in the minds of the people.

The Renaissance kind led the creative talents of the people and slowly paved the way for many inventions and discoveries.

The study of the history become more scientific.

The Renaissance resulted in humanism noted for its sympathetic and devoted approach to mankind.

3. What were the services of Martin Luther against corrupted practice of the Roman Catholic Church?

In 1517, Martin Luther nailed his protest against the indulgence in the form of 95 theses to the door of the Wittenberg church in Saxony.

His protest theses were translated, copied and circulated widely in printed form.

In 1520, Luther published Three pamphlets

1. An address to the nobility of the German nation.

2. On the Babylonian captivity of the church and

3. The freedom of the Christian of the man.

4. Write a note on the inquisition and the Index.

In order to root our heresy, the church court inquisition it meted brutal punishments

The Spanish inquisitions as founded the time of Ferdinand and Isabella.

The church also prepared an index of hierarchical books and passages Hierarchical writing were prohibited for the believers.

5. What were the causes for the geographical discoveries?

The age of Renaissance and had removed medieval ideas.

It fostered a spirit of adventure among the people of Europe to explore unknown distant lands in various parts of the world.

Scientists discovered that the earth is spherical in shape.

The invention of Mariner’s compass was the most significant one.

9th History

MEDIEVAL AGE

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Early medieval period has been termed as Dark Age.

2. Feudalism was a social system based on land.

3. Prophet Mohammad founded the religion of Islam.

4. The title of lion heart was given to Richard.

5. Holy land of Christian is Jerusalem.

II. Match the following:

1. Constantine -emperor

2. Fief -land

3. Cambridge -university

4. Genoa -coastal town

5. Barbarians -tribe

III. Answer briefly:

1. What is feudalism?

  • An important feature of the middle ages was feudalism.
  • The word feudalism is derived from the Latin word feud or fief.
  • Fief means a land held on condition of Service.
  • It was essentially an agrarian system.
  • The peasants had to give a portion of the Produce from the land to the lords as rent or taxes.

2. What is manor?

  • A manner was a sub division of the land.
  • The barons received the land from the king.
  • This land was sub divided into manor.
  • Each manor was given to a sub tenant.

3. What are the coastal towns and trade centres?

  • Genoa and Venice were the coastal during the medieval period.
  • Genoa, Florence and Venice became trading centres.
  • Florence, Pisa and Milan were situated on inland trade routes.

4. How did the king get military service in the time of war?

  • The king distributed the lands to barons on the conditions ofmilitary and administrative services.
  • In times of war, the feudal lords supplied the military force to the king.
  • So the king had to rely on the military services provided by his vassals.
  • The army was not given uniform training in the kingdom.

5. Who were the leaders of the children’s crusade?

  • The children’s crusade took place in 1212.
  • The leaders were Nicholas of Germany and Stephen of France.
  • They believed that god could mysteriously guide and guard the children in their endeavors.
  • But none of the children went beyond Italy.

6. Mention some of the universities of medieval Europe?

  • The University of Bologna was famous for the learning of law.
  • Arabic and Hebrew were taught in Spanish university.
  • The University of Oxford in England was modeled on the Paris University of France.
  • The Cambridge University came into existence in the 12th century.

7. What was the aim of the crusades?

  • Crusades were the holy wars of the Christians of Western Europe against the Turks.
  • Jerusalem, the holy place of the Christians went under the control of Seljuk Turks.
  • The Seljuk Turks were religiously intolerant people.
  • The Christians wanted to save themselves from the persecution and humiliation.
  • For all these reasons Christians undertook crusades.

8. Who was the authority of the church?

  • By the 6th century A.D., the pope became the head of the church.
  • Kings were the rulers of the kingdoms.
  • Sometimes the popes were stronger than the king.
  • The pope was considered as the representative of Jesus Christ.

IV. Answer all the questions given under the each following:

1. Feudalism:

(a) From which word “feudalism” is derived?

  • The word feudalism is derived from the Latin word fief or feud.

(b) Who were the feudal lords?

  • The king divided the kingdom into several fiefs and distributed to the barons. They were the feudal lords.

(c) How was the feudal village called?

  • The feudal village was called fief.

(d) What did this system prevailed in Europe?

  • During the medieval period.

2. Papacy:

(a) Who was the head of the church?

  • The pope was the head of the church.

(b) How was the leadership between the pope and the king?

  • Sometimes the popes were stronger than the king. They developed a system of dual leadership under the popes and the kings.

(c) What was the role of pope?

  • The pope was considered as the representative of Jesus Christ. He was the highest authority of the church.

(d) What was the result of the dual leadership?

  • The dual leadership led to the rivalries between the church and the state.

3. Crusades:

(a) Which was the holy land of the Christians?

  • Jerusalem and Bethlehem.

(b) Who gave call to the Christians all over the world?

  • Pope urban II gave a call to the Christians all over the world to come together and to take arms.

(c) Where did the council meet?

  • At Clermont.

(d) How many crusades have taken place?

The first four were major crusades and the last four were minor crusades.

4. Mohammed the prophet:

(a) Which was the birth place of Islam?

  • Arabia.

(b) Who was the founder of Islam?

  • Prophet Mohammad.

(c) What are the important cities in Arabia?

  • Mecca and Medina.

(d) What did Islam religion stress?

  • Islam laid stress on the unity of god and on following moral standards and principles.

V. Answer in the paragraph:

1. Describe the barbarian invasion.

  • The barbarian mention has a severe blow to the Roman Empire
  • It shook up the roman solidarity.
  • Barbarians like the Goths, Huns, and vandals poured into the country in large numbers.
  • Their aim was to loaf the people of the conquered territories.
  • This invasion disturbed the internal peace.
  • Lords and the common people had no other option except accepting the new system of feudalism.

2. Write the causes for the down falloff the Roman Empire?

  • The decline of the mighty Roman Empire was brought by nature and time. Hurricanes and earth quakes affected the empire.
  • The inflow of wealth brought moral degradation.
  • The church stood against the empire.
  • The political mechanism of the Rome was not suitable to Roman Empire.
  • Roman Empire became too big to be ruled.
  • Colonial people suffered.
  • The people lose the freedom of speech.
  • The in different attitude of the masses towards their rulers became a cause for the down fall.

3. Explain the rise of Islam in Europe?

  • During the middle ages, Arabia became the birth place of Islam.
  • As a religion it united the various warring tribes.
  • The founder of the Islam religion was Prophet Mohammad.
  • Islam laid stress on the unity of god and on following high moral standards and principles.
  • Mecca and Medina became two important pilgrim centres in Arabia.
  • This religion contributed in the field of literature, science and medicine.
  • The Arabs wanted to spread their religion in the conquered region.
  • It posed a serious threat to the Christian culture resulting in crusades.

4. What were the results of the crusades?

  • The crusades failed in recovering the holy places in Palestine.
  • This led to the establishment of new Christian kingdoms in Spain and Portugal.
  • The byzantine power lost its prestige and honour.
  • Feudalism received its rudest shock from the crusades.
  • The military orders were seriously affected.
  • The power and prestige of the popes increased.
  • It prepared the way for the discovery of new trade routes.
  • Ship building industry developed with the usage of mariner’s compass.
  • A spirit of enquiry was created leading to the renaissance of the 6th century.
9th History

INTELLECTUAL AWAKENING OF 6TH CENTURY B.C.

I. CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER:

1. Which period witnessed a great intellectual awakening in the world

6th century

2. How many years did the philosophy of Confucius mould and dominate the Chinese mind.

2000 years

3. Whowas the founder of Zorastrianism

Zoroaster

4. Who was the 23rd Tirthankara

Parsavanath

5. In which place Buddha got enlightenment

Bodh Gaya

II. MATCH THE FOLLOWING:

1. Zoroastrianism – Mazda

2. Jina – Conqueror of senses

3. Yasodhara – Buddha

4. Triratnas – Mahavira

5. Sangha – Buddhism

III. HEADINGS:

1. ZOROASTRIANISM:

a) Who founded Zoroastrianism?

Zoroaster.

b) Which was the wise spirit of Zoroastrianism?

Ahura mazda.

c) What type of worship represented the monotheistic basis of Zoroastrianism?

Ahura mazda was a Cult.

d) What was the name of Holy scripture of the Parsees?

Zend avesta.

2. JAINISM:

a) How many Thirthankaras were there in the Jain religion?

24 Thirthankaras.

b) Who was the earliest Thirthankara?

Rishabadeva.

c) What was the name of the last Thirthankara?

Vardhamana.

d) Who preached the four disciplines to his disciples?

Parsavanath.

3. MAHAVIRA:

a) What was the original name of Mahavira?

Vardhamana Mahavira.

b) Where was he born?

Kundagrama, near Vaisali.

c) What is meant by Jina?

Conqueror of senses.

d) For how many years did he wander and observe severe penance?

12 years.

4. BUDDHA:

a) Who founded Buddhism?

Gauthama Buddha.

b) What was his original name?

Siddhartha.

c) Where did he give his first sermon?

Deer park at Saranath.

d) Where did he get Enlightment?

Bodh Gaya.

IV. ANSWER IN BRIEF:

1. Why did Intellectual awakening start in the 6th century B.C.?

The reformers of all over the world raised their voice against the existing social beliefs and systems and endeavored to reconstruct them on a rational basis.

2. Write a short notes on Mazda?

Ahura mazda, personified as sun, fire and light.

Zoroastrians could practice Mazda worship in the form of fire worship in their own house.

For them the body is only the instrument of sprits hence the corpse did not deserve reverence or preservance.

3. What was the four disciplines preached by Mahavira to his disciples?

1. Non-injury to living beings.

2. Not to speak untruth.

3. Not to steal.

4. Not to possess.

4. Write about pitakas?

The Buddhist scriptures, known as pitakas are divided into three sections, namely, the Sutta, the vinaya and the Abhidhamma.

5. In which council was the Sangha divided into two?

In the fourth council convend during Kanishka’s reign, the sangha split into two i.e., Mahayana and Hinayana.

V. ANSWER IN PARAGRAPH:

1. Write a paragraph about Confucius?

  • Confucious was not the founder of any religion nor was he a social reformer.
  • He was a transmitter,believing in and loving the ancients.
  • Eventhough ninitialy he lived a life of luxuries,later on he became a teacher and started his school.
  • He said,”a man’s character is formed by the odes developed by the rites and perfected by music”.
  • He spoke of disciplined society and of healthy social relations.
  • Father,teacher,husband or king should protect their dependends.
  • If they faild in their responsibility revolt would take place.
  • Thus,cofucious(kung-fu-tse) was advocating a fair social order based on discipline.
  • His philosophy molted the chinese mind for more than 2000 years.

2. What was the importance of Zoroastrianism?

  • Zoroaster was the founder of Zoroastrianism.
  • The struggle between good and evil became the central theme of Zoroastrianism.
  • Zoroaster asked the people to give up their polytheistic cults.
  • He asked them to accept Ahura Mazda as the only god.
  • Zoroastians could practiced mazda worship in the form of the fire worship in their own houses.
  • Ahura Mazda, personified as sun, fire and light had been carrying on a relentless struggle against the evil forces.
  • The evil forces were ignorance, selfishness and all wices.
  • This struggle is manifested not only humans but also in all natural expressions.
  • Zoroaster’s concept of good and evil strengthened the moral base of persian society.
  • Is monotheism served the cause of social unity without involving any costly rituals.

3. Write the note on the teachings of Mahavira?

  • Mahavira is considered as the 24th thirthankara.
  • When he became an ascetic, he preached four disciplines to his disciples.
  • Ahimsa, speak the truth, not to steal and not to posses.
  • When he attained keval gnanam, at the age of 42, he became the “jina”.
  • He had no faith in god and rejected the authority of the vedas.
  • He believed that the matter and soul were two eternal elements.
  • He preached the three gems or triratnas.
  • Right knowledge, right faith and right conduct are the triratnas.
  • He had strong faith in ahimsa.
  • He did not belive in the caste system or sacrifices and yagnas.
  • He preached equality of human beings.

4. Enumerate the code of conduct that mahavira preached.

  • Jainism advocates the state of moksha or nirvana can be attained by following the triratnas.
  • The tri ratnas are right belief, right knowledge and right action.
  • The code of conduct that mahavira preached has five disciplines.
  • non injury to living beings,
  • not to utter untruth,
  • not to steal,
  • not to posses,
  • to practice celibacy
  • After the death of mahavira, Jainism split into two groups namely digambaras and swetambaras.

5. Write a paragragh on the eight fold path of Buddhism?

  • The eight fold path consists of the following principles;

(1) right belief,

(2) right thought,

(3) right speech,

(4) right action,

(5) right means of livelihood,

(6) right effort,

(7) right meditation and

(8) right remembrance or memory

  • The Buddha preached “nirvana” the ultimate goal in the life of a man.
  • The Buddha neither accepted nor rejected the existence of god.
  • He had no faith in caste system.
  • He advocated the principle of universal brotherhood.
  • He laid stress on morality.
  • He established sangha to propagate his principles and to render services to people.
9th History

ANCIENT CIVILIZATION

I. CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER:

1. Hippocrates was called father of medicine.

2. The Egyptian king was called as Pharaoh.

3. The Sumerian calendar based on seven days in a week.

4. Gun powder was invented by Chinese.

5. The Egyptian civilization grew along the Nile Rivers.

II. MATCH IT.

1. Pyramids – Egypt.

2. Great wall – China.

3. Hanging garden – Babylon.

4. All roads lead to – Rome.

5. Greece – Hilly region.

III. HEADINGS.

1. EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION:

a. Who built the great Pyramid of Gaze?

Cheops.

b. What was the Egyptian King called?

Pharaoh.

c. How did the Egyptians preserve the dead bodies?

Honey and medicinal plants.

d. What is pyramid?

Tombs of pharaohs.

2. CHINESE CIVILIZATION:

a. What was known as the “sorrow of China”?

Hwang-ho (or) yellow river.

b. Name the great philosophers of China?

Confucius and Lao-tse.

c. Which was the popular drink in China?

Tea.

d. Who built the Great wall of China?

Shi-hung-it.

IV. ANSWER BRIEFLY:

1. How was the Egyptian society divided?

The Egyptian society was composed of into Aristocracy, the middle class and the slaves.

2. Write a note on hanging garden?

  • The Chaldean empire reached the zenith of its prosperity during the reign by Nebuchad mezzo.
  • He built the famous “Hanging garden” which is considered as one of the wonders of ancient India.

3. Name the two epics of the Greek?

The lilac and odyssey are the great epics written by a blind poet Homer.

Herodutus, Thucydides and Plutarch are famous biographers of ancient Greece.

4. Mention two important contributions of the Chinese to the World?

The hot beverage “TEA” is a gift to modern world.

The great wall of China measured 2880km in length, it is considered as one of the contributions of the Chinese built by emperor Chin-she-huang-Ti.

V. ANSWER IN PARAGRAPH:

1. What were the gifts of China to the modern world?

CHINESE SCRIPT:

  • The Chinese developed a pictographic script and later brought out many changes in it.
  • Their writing was done on bones or tortoise shells with the help of some sharp instrument.
  • In 2nd century A. D they invented paper.
  • Silk pieces were also used for writing.
  • Ink was invented in 5th century A. D.
  • The Chinese pencils were made of bamboo.
  • Some of the valuable scientific discoveries own their origin to ancient china.
  • Theories of lunar and solar eclipse were also developed.
  • They made some scientific inventions like the water mill, the mariner’s compass, gun powder and paper currency.
  • An anatomical study of human bodies was popular.
  • In mathematics they introduced the abacus method.

2. Write a note on the contribution of Romans to civilization?

  • In the field of science, the Romans, improved the Medical science, pliny, the elder wrote a natural history which contains scientific facts.
  • Ptolemy, a great astronomer and geographer lived in the Roman empire.
  • Galen was the greatest Physician of his time.
  • He studied the respiratory system and related diseases and wrote number of medical treatises.
  • The world is indebted to the Roman’s for their share in the march of human civilization.
  • The Romans acted as agents to spread and preserve much of what the ancient Greeks had left behind as their legacy.
  • The Latin language, the concept of Pax Romagna the military system, works of engineering and codified law are precious contributions of the Romans to the world civilizations.