7th History

BHAKTHI AND SUFI MOVEMENT

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The Bhakthi movement spread during the ————

Medieval period in India.

2. Shankaracharya was born at ———–

Kaladi.

3. Gurunanak was the founder of ————-

Sikkkism.

4. Sufism originated in ————-

Persia.

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Sankaracharys preached Advaita philosophy.

2. Ramanuja, an exponent of the Bhakthi movement was born at Sriperumbadur near Chennai.

3. Basava was the founder of virasaivism.

4. Gnanadeva wrote a commentary on Bhagavat Gita called Gnaneshwani.

5. Kandhuri was festival is celebrated at Nagore Dargah.

III Match the following:

1. Nayanmars —- saivites

2. Manikavasagar —– Thiruvasagam

3. Alwars —– Vaishnavites

4. Mirabai —– Devotee of Krishna

5. Chokamela —- Dalit writer

IV. Answer the following:

1. What were the main objectives of the Bhakthi movements?

The main objectives of Bhakthi movement were reform the Hindu Religion and foster friendly

relations between the friendly relations between the Hindu and Muslim community.

2. What was the impact of the bhakthi cult in South India?

Saivism and vaishnavism revived and gained reat impetus through the Bhakthi cult during the

Pallava, chola and Pandya period by the Nayanmars and the Alwars.

3. Write a short note on Kabir.

Kabir a follower of Ramananda was the first to preach Hindu-Muslim unity.

His followers are called kapirparthis.

His teachings have been called Bijaka.

4. Name the Marata saints of the Bhakthi movement?

The Maratha region produced a number of Bhakthi saints namely

v Gnana Deva,

v Nam Deva,

v Sbnath,

v Tukaram,

v Tulsidas and

v Ramdas.

5. What did the Sufists insists?

Sufism instisted that God could be reached only through meditation, love and devotion.

They opposed rituals and were tolerant towards other religions.

V. Detail:

1. Give a detailed account of the exponents of the Bhakthi movement in India.

Ramanuja:-

v He was a great exponent of the Bhakthi movement, was born at Sriperumbudur.

v He was a real Vaishnavite leader of the 12th entury AD.

v He taught that Salvation lies only in devotion to God.

v He was the follower of Ramanuja.

v He saw humanity as one family and all men as brothers

Vallabharya.

v He was a devotee of Krishna Basava.

v He was the founder of virasaivism.

Chaitanya:

v He was born in Benal in 1485 AD.

v He propagated Krishna cult kabir.

v He was a follower of Ramananda was the first to preach Hindu-muslim community.

v His followers called kabirpanthis.

Gurunanak:

v He was another well-known saint of the Bhakti movement was the founder of sikkism.

v He preached unity of God, goodwill and co-operation among Hindus and Muslims.

Mirabai:

v She was a devotee of lord Krishna. She was very popular in Rajasthan for her Bhajans.

2. Write in detail about the sufi movement in India.

Sufi movement:

v Sufi movement originated in Persia.

v It became popular in India in the 12th century AD.

v They regarded prophet Mohamed as a perfect human being.

v Sufism insisted that God could be reached only through meditation love and devotion.

v They opposed rituals and were tolerant towards other religions.

Important Sufi saints of India:-

Khwaja Muin-ud-din chisti:

v He preached that the greatest form of devotion to God was through service humanity.

v He was popularly known as Gharib Nawaz or protector of the poor.

Baba farid:

v He was a discipline of Khwaja muin-ud-din-chisti.

v He preached the unity of God and brotherhood.

v He encouraged people to live a simple life.

v He was against class and caste distinctions.

Saint Nagore Andavar:

v He belonged to the 16th century.

v He was popularly called Meeran sahib.

The shrine at Nagore is dedicated to him.

3. What was the impact of the Bhakthi and sufi movement?

v The Bhakthi and sufi movements tried to end the exploitation of the masses by the priestly class.

v They created awareness about the evils of superstitious beliefs.

v They belived that through love and devotion one can realize that personal presence of God.

v The sufi saints taught that there is one God and all human beings are his children.

v Hindi, Punjabi, Bengali, Telugu, Kannada and Tamil literature were enriched by the Bhakti and Sufi saints.

7th History

The Vijayanagar and Bahmani Kingdoms

I Choose the correct answer.

1. The Vijayanagar Empire was founded in the year_____________ .

a) 1337A.D. b)1336A.D. c)1338A.D.

2. The brothers Harihara and Bukka served under the Hoysala King _________

a) Vira Ballala-lll b)Narasimhan-ll c)Billiama-VI

3. The most famous king of the Vijayanagar Empire was __________ .

a) Harihara b) Bukka c) Krishnadeva Raya

4. The Muslim kingdom that rose to prominence in the Deccan in 1347 A.D. was the——–

a) Slave b) Vijayanagar c) Bahmani

5. Muhammad Gawan was the Regent of ___________.

a) Muhammad Shah-Ill b) Hasan Gangu c) Ahmad Shah

II Fill in the blanks.

1. A group of eight scholars called Ashtadigagaias adorned the court of Krishnadeva Raya.

2. The Vijayanagar Empire reached its zenith of glory during the period of Krishnadeva Raya.

3. Ramaraya was defeated and killed in the Battle of Talaikotta

4. The Bahmani Kingdom was founded by Hasan Gangu Bahmini.

5. The Bahmani Sultans encouraged Arabic and Persian learning.

III Match the following.

1. Vijayanagar – Southern bank of Tungabhadra

2. Battle of Talikota – 1565A.D.

3. Krishnadeva Raya – Ushaparinayam

4. Juma Masjid – Gulbarga

5. Golgumbaz – Bijapur

IV Answer the following questions briefly.

1. When was the Vijayanagar kingdom founded and by whom?

Answer: Harihara and Bukka served under the Hoysala King Vira Ballala III. He founded the city of Vijayanagar on the southern banks of Tungabhadra in 1336 A.D.

2. Who were the important rulers of the Vijayanagar Empire?

The important rulers of Vijayanagar Empire were

· Harihara-II, Devaraya-I,

· Devaraya-Ji,

· Krishnadeva Raya.

3. Write a short note on the Battle of Talikota.

· The successors of Krishnadeva Raya were weak.

· During the rule of Ramaraya, the combined forces of Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Golconda and Bidar declared war on Vijayanagar. In the battle of Talikota in 1565 A.D.

· Ramaraya was defeated. He and his people were mercilessly killed.

· Vijayanagar was plundered and left in ruins.

4.When and by whom was the Bahmani kingdom founded?

· The founder of this dynasty was Hasan Gangu Bahmani.

v He was a Turkish officer of Devagiri. He established the independent Bahmani kingdom in 1347 A.D.

5.Name the five Muslim kingdoms that arose in Deccan at the end of Bahmani rule.

v The five Muslim Kingdoms Bijapur, Ahmednagar, Berar, Golconda and Bidar.

Answer in detail.

1. Discuss in detail about the glories of the Vijayanagar Empire.

Answer: The Glories of the Vijayanagar Empire

Administration

Ø The Vijayanagar rulers had a well organized administrative system.

Ø The king was the fountain head of all powers in the state.

Ø There was a Council of Ministers to assist the King in the work of administration.

Ø The Empire was divided into six Provinces.

Ø Each Province was under a Governor called Naik.

Ø The Provinces were divided into districts which were further divided into smaller units namely Villages.

Ø The Village Assembly carried on the administration of the villages through its hereditary officers like accountants, the weightsmen, watchmen and officers incharge of forced labour.

Ø The Central administration maintained contact with the villages through an officer called Mahanayakacharya.

The Army

Ø The army consisted of the infantry, cavalry and elephantry. The commander in-chief was in charge of the army.

Revenue Administration

Ø Land revenue was the main source of income.

Ø The land was carefully surveyed and taxes were collected based on the fertility of the soil.

Ø Great attention was paid to agriculture and the construction of dams and canals.

Judicial Administration

Ø The king was the supreme judge.

Ø The civil cases were decided on the basis of Hindu Law. Severe punishments were inflicted on the guilty.

Ø Fines were collected from those who violated the law.

Position of Women

Ø Women occupied a high position and took an active part in political, social and literary life of the empire.

Ø They were educated and trained in wrestling, in the use of various weapons of offence and defence, in music and fine arts.

Ø Some of them received education of high order.

Ø Nuniz writes that the kings had women astrologers, clerks, accountants, guards and wrestlers.

Social life

Ø We get a clear picture of the life of the Vijayanagar people from the writings of the foreign travellers.

Ø The society was well organized.

Ø Child marriage, polygamy and sati were prevalent.

Ø He kings allowed freedom of religion.

Economic conditions

Ø The empire of Vijayanagar was very rich and prosperous. The agricultural production was increased by their irrigational policies.

Ø Numerous industries such as Textiles, mining, metallurgy and perfumery existed.

Ø They had commercial relations with the islands in the Indian Ocean, the Malay Archipelago, Burma, China, Arabia, Persia, South Africa, Abyssinia and Portugal.

Ø The chief articles exported were spices, cereals, cotton, silk, opium, indigo, sea pearls, saffron, ginger, sugar, coconuts, etc. The articles imported were horses, elephants, copper, coal, mercury, China silk and velvets.

2. Give an account of the political history of the Bahmani Kingdom.

Answer: The founder of this dynasty was Hasan Gangu Bahmani.

v He was a Turkish officer of Devagiri.

v He established the independent Bahmani kingdom in 1347 A.D. He captured the entire territories from Mahur in north-east to Telangana in the south.

v He defeated the Hindu ruler of Warangal and annexed Kolhapur, Goa, Mandu and Malwa.

v Thus his kingdom stretched from the Arabian sea to the Bay of Bengal and included the whole of Deccan upto the river Krishna with its capital at Gulbarga.

Muhammad Shah-I (1358- 1377.A.D.)

v The next ruler was an able general and administrator. He defeated Bukka-I the ruler of

Vijayanagar and Kapaya Nayaks of Warangal.

Muhammad Shah – II (1378- 1397.A.D.)

v He was peace loving and hence he developed friendly relations with his neighbours.

v He built many mosques, Madarasas (a place of learning) and hospitals.

v On the death of Muhammad Shah-ll, Feroz Shah Bahmani (1397-1422 A.D.) became the ruler.

v He was a great general.

v He defeated Deva Raya I, the Vijayanagar ruler.

v He recruited a number of Hindus in his services.

v Towards the end of his rule, he lost the northern and southern provinces of his kingdom to Vijayanagar.

Ahmad Shah (1422-1435 A.D.)

v Succeeded Feroz Shah Bahmani.

v He was a cruel and merciless ruler.

v He conquered the kingdom of Warangal and changed his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar.

v He died in 1435A.D.

Muhammad Shah-Ill (1463- 1482 A.D.)

v Was another notable Bahmani ruler.

v He became the Sultan at the age of nine in 1463A.D.

v Muhammad Gawan became the regent of the infant ruler.

v Under his able guidance the Bahmani kingdom became very powerful.

v Muhammad Gawan defeated the rulers of Konkan, Sangameshwar, Orissa and Vijayanagar.

7th History

SULTANATE OF DELHI

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The Mamaluk rule was founded by———–.

Qutb-ud-din-aibak.

2. The first Turkish ruler to introduce Arabic coinage was ——-

Iltumish.

3. The poet known as the parrot of India was————-

Amir Khusru.

4. The founder of the Sayyid dynasty was ————-

Khizr Khan.

5. Babur the ruler of Kabul was invited by————— to invade India

Daulat Khan Lodi.

II. Fill in the blanks:-

1. Quat-ul-Islam mosque at Ajmer was built by Qutb-din-aibak.

2. The first woman ruler of the sultanate period was Raziah.

3. The founder of the Tughlag dynasty was Ghiyas ud din Tughlaq.

4. Bahlol lodi occupied the throne of Delhi in 1457 AD.

5. Sikhandar Shah Lodi enjoyed Shenai music.

III. Match the following:-

1. Qutb in din aibak — lakh bakh.

2. Balban — Devine right theory.

3. Jalal-ud-din — Policy of peace.

4. Prince juna khan — Tughlaq.

5. Timur — Ruler of Samarqand.

IV. Answer the following:-

1. How did Quit-ud-din-aibak save his infant empire?

· In order to save his empire he made many matrimonial alliances and shifted his capital to Lahore.

· He successfully put down his enemies and firmly established his hold over India.

2. How was Balban able to destroy the corps forty?

· Balpan curtailed and destroyed the corps of forty by giving them severe punishment and promoting juniors important juniors to important positions.

· He introduced a well organized spy system.

3. Write a short note on Ala-ud-din khilji army?0

· A permanent standing army was organized by Ala-ud-din.

· He introduced the system of branding of horses and descriptive roll of individual soldiers to prevent corruption.

4. What were the public works introduced by Firoz Tughlaq?

· Firoz gave importance to public works.

· He excavated many irrigations canal, constructed 50 dams, 150 well and 100 bridges.

· He built the towns like Firozabad and Fatebad, Taunpur and Hissar.

· Firoz prohibited all kinds of mutilation and torture.

5. Give a short note of Timurs invasion.

· The ruler of Samarqand, timur was attracted by the fabulous wealth of Hindustan.

· He invaded India during the period of Nasir Mohamed Tughlaq.

· The sultan and his prime minister opposed timur.

· Timur defeated them and occupied Delhi ibn 1398 AD.

· His invasions led to the decline of the Tughlug dynasty.

V. Details

1. How did Iltumish put down his enemies and strengthen his position?

· Iltumish was surrounded by enemies on all sides.

· He put them down and strengthened his position.

· As yalduz considered himself to be the successor of Mohamed of Ghori Iltumish defeated

him and put him to death.

· He drove out Nasir-ud-din Qubacha, the rule of Uch and Multan from Punjab.

· Bengal was also brought under his control.

· Iltumish put down the result of the khilji maliks of bengal in 1230 AD.

· In Rajputana ,Iltumish recaptured Ranthambore and mandor.

· He defeated udai singh the ruler of jalor and made him a feudatory.

· Thangiri,Ajmir, Sambha, Nagur, Kalinjar and Gwalior were captured by him.

· Iltumish re-established his authority over Badaun, kanauj, Beneras and katchar the doab region between the ganga and the Yamuna.

2.Describe in detail the conquests of Ala-ud-din-khilji in north and south India.

· Ala-ud-din khilji ascended the throne in 1296 AD. He consolidated his hold over North India and invaded south india also.

· Conquests in the north.

· Ala-ud-din khilji sent a strong army uner his Generals Ulugh- khan and Nusrat khan to conquer Gujarat and they succeeded in doing so.

· Ranthambore was captured and its ruler Hamir deva was killed.

· Dhan,Chanderi, Marwar and Jalor were also captured.

Conquest in south:-

· Ala-ud-din khilji was the first sultan invaded south india.

· He sent his most trust worthy General Malik kafur of the south.

· Ramachandra Deva the ruler of Devagiri Pratapurudha II of Warangal and vira Ballala

–III the hoysala ruler were defeated and made vassals of delhi.

· The kingdoms of south accepted the overlordship of Ala-ud-din khilji and agreed to pay tribute to him.

3. Give an account of the domestic policies of Mohamed-bin-Tughlug.

· Mohamed –bin-Tughlaq raised to fill up his empty treasury.

· To avoid heavy taxes the people ran away to the forests.

· As cultivation was neglected severe famines occurred.

· He realized his mistake and sanctioned loans and dug the canals to overcome famine, but it was too late.

· Mangols were often invading the Indian frontiers.

· In order to protect his capital, he transformed his capital from Delhi to Devagiri.

· Due to practical difficulties he ordered them to return back to Delhi.

· Copper currency system was introduced by Sultan.

· The official Machinery was not appointed to mint coins.

· So, the people started minting coins in huge numbers.

· The value of coins fell so low that theSultan withdrew the copper token currency.

· The domestic policies of Mohamed bin-Tughlag were good but his operative measures ended in a failure.

· His character of taking hasty decisions and in operative policies were responsible for the decline of the Delhi Sullanate.

4.Write in detail about the administrative of the Delhi Sultanate.

Administrative under the Delhi sultanate.

·  The sultanate of Delhi which extended from 1206 AD to 1526AD was a Theocratic as well as a military state.

· Administration was based on Islamic laws.

Central administration:

· The sultan was the head of the empire.

· There were six ministers to assist him.

· Many officials were also appointed to take care of the

administration.

Provincial Administration:

· The empire was divided into several Iqtas.

· Iqtas were divided into smaller units called shiqqss pparganas and the villagers.

Local administrations:

· The village was the smallest unit of administration.

· The villager officers carried out the administrations.

Revenue administration:

· Land revenue was the main source of income.

· Trade revenue was the main source of income.

· Trade tax, house tax, horse tax, mines tax etc. were some of the taxes collected during the sultanate period.

Judicial administration:

· The sultan was the highest judicial authority.

· Qazi-ul-quzar in every town Military administration.

· The sultan was the commander of the army.

· The four divisions of the army were the royal army, provincial or Governors army, feudal army and war time army.

7th History

ARAB AND TURKISH INVASIONS

I.Choose the best answer:-

1. Md-bin-Qasim was sent to conquer Sind.

2. Md of Ghazni defeated Jaipala.

3. Somanath temple was plundered by Md of Ghazni in 1025A.D.

4. In the first Battle of Tarine Md of Ghori was defeated by Prithivi raj.

5. The commander of Md of Ghori was Qutb-ud-din Aibak.

II Fill in the blanks:-

1. Probhet Mohamed was the founder of Islam.

2. Mohamed-bin-Qasim invaded Sind in 712A.D.

3. In the second battle of Tarain Mohamed of ghori killed Prithiviraj.

4. Mohamed-bin-Baktiyar- khilji captured Nadia in Bengal.

5. Mohamed of Ghori was considered to be the real founder of a Turkish Empire in India.

III Match the following:-

1. Al-hajaji – Governor of Iraq.

2. Multan – City of gold.

3. Sabudktigin – Ruler of Ghazni

4. Somnath temple – Kathiawar

5. Firdaus – Scholar

IV. Answer the following:-

1. Write a note on the administrative system of Arabs Sind.

v Mohamed-bin-Qasim divided Sind and Multan into a number of Iqtas and districts.

v Arab military officers were appointed as heads of the Iqtas.

v Local Hindu officers were allowed to administer that the sub-divisions of the districts.

2. Who dismissed Mohamed-bin-Qasim and why?

v Caliph sulaiman dismissed Mohamed-bin-qusim.

v He was an arch enemy of AL-hajjaj, the governor of Iraq.

3. Who were the rulers defeated by Mohamed of Ghazni?

v Mohamed of Ghazni defeated Jaipala, the ruler of the Hindu Shahi dynasty , Fateh Daud

of Multan and Anadpala of Nagarkot.

v He also crushed the Chandelas, the rulers of Mathura, Kanouj and Gwalior.

4. What were the regions invaded and captured by Mohamed of ghori?

v Ghori captured multan and uch.

v He subjucated lower Sind in 1182 A.D.

v In 1185 A.D. He invaded Punjab and captured the fortress of Sialkot.

v In 1186 A.D. he besieged Lahore.

5. Why was the battle of Chandwar important in the history of India?

v In the battle of Chanwar, Jaichand was struck in the eye by an arrow and he was killed

by Mohamed of Ghori.

v The victory at Chandwar helped Mohamed of Ghori to extend further into India.

V. Answer in detail:-

1. Write in detail the Arab conquest of Sind and Multan and its effects on India.

v Commercial contacts prevailed between India and Arabia for a long time.

v There were many causes for the conquest of Sind.

v They wanted to extend their political and religious control over it.

v Mohamed-bin-Qasim was sent by Al-Hajjaj the Governor of Caliph walid to conquer Sind.

v He marched against Dahir the ruler of sind defeated him in the battle of Rewar and captured Sind.

v He also captured Multan.

v He got so much of wealth from muttan that he called Multan The City of Gold.

Effects:

v The conuest of sind sowed the seeds for their coming of Islam into India.

v The Arabs learnt the art of administration, astronomy, music, painting, medicine and

architecture from our land.

v Indian philosophy numerals and astronomy were taken to Europe by the Arabs.

6. Give an account of the first and second Battle of Tarain.

First battle of Tarain.

v In 1189 A.D. Mohamed.of Ghori captured the fortress of Bhatinda and advanced into the

kingdom of Prithiviraj Chauhan the Rajput ruler.

v Prithiviraj marched and defeated him with a large force and defeated Mohamed of Ghori

in the Battle of tarain in 1191AD.

Second battle of Tarain:

v Mohamed of Ghori re-enforced himself and marched against prithivi for the second time in 1192.

v He gave a crushing defeat to the combined forces of the Rajput rulers under Prithiviraj at Tarain.

v Prithiviraj was imprisoned and later put to death.

v The second battle of Tarain marked in the beginning of the Turkish rule in the heart in Indian Hindustan for the first time in indian history.

v Mohamed of Ghori appointed Qutb-ud-din Aibak his commander.

7th History

THE SOUTH INDIAN KINDOMS

I.Choose the correct answers

1. The pallavas under Simha Vishnu overtherew the Kalabhras and estabilished their supremacy over Thondaimandalam.

2.Narasimhavarman I assumed the title Vatapikondan.

3. The kallanai across river Cauvery was built by karikalacholan.

4. Parantaka I the son of Aditya I defeated the Pandiya ruler and took up the title Madurai Kondan.

5. The pandiya empire was called Pandiya mandalam.

6. Andal composed Thiruppavai.

II. Fill in the blanks

1 .During the period of Narasimhavarman-I Hieun Tsang visited kanchipuram.

2. Monolithic Rathas are found at Mamallapuram.

3. Kulothunga cholan was called Sungam Thavirtha Cholan.

4. The chola kings were patrons of Saivism.

5. Thiruvasagam was composed by Manickavasagam.

6. The paintings of srivallabha pandya are seen in the Sithannavasal

Cave temples.

III. MATCH THE FOLLOWING:

1. Ursavai — Village assembly

2. Shore temple — Mamallapuram.

3. Kambar — Ramayana.

4. Brihadeeswara — Tanjore.

5. Megasthenese — Greek writer

6. Katyayana — Sanskrit Grammarian.

IV. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING:-

1. Write a short note on the origin of the Pallavas.

There is a controversy over the origin of the Pallavas some of the views are they were of Persian origin feudatories of the satavahanas or the natives of Thondaimandalam.

2. Write a note on the administrative divisions of the pallavas.

The pallava region was divided into four divisions namely the Rashtras or Mandalams, Vishayas or Kottams, Nadus and Urs.

3. Mention the sources of informations about the cholas.

Mahabharatha, the inscriptions of Ashoka and the works of Measthenese and Ptolemy are the sources of information about the cholas.

4. Which are the chief centres of the Chola art and architecture?

Thiruchirapalli, SriRangam, Tanjore, Kumbakonam, Chidambaram, Thiruvunnamalai, Trivandrum, Suchindram and Udipi are the chief centres of the chola art.

The vijayalaya choleswaram at Nattramalai, Aivarkoil at kodumbalur, Brahadeeshwara temple are centres of the chola architecture.

5. What do you know about Jatavarman kulasekara Pandya I?

Jatavarman kulassekara-I succeeded his father vikrama pandiya.

He ruled over Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Thirunelveli and Kanyakumarai.

6. Name a few occupations of the Pandiyas.

· Agriculture and trade were their main occupations.

· The agriculturists were called the Boomiputirar.

· The Pandiyas were famous for pearl diving.

V ANSWER IN DETAIL:-

1. Discuss the contributions of the Pallavas to art, architecture and fine arts.

Art and Architecture:-

The Pallavas architecture began the Dravidian style of temple architecture.

Its development can be seen in four styles.

Mahendravarman style:-

§ The first style was the Rock cut temples.

§ It was introducing by Mahendravarman-II.

§ This style of temples were excavated at places like Mahendravadi, Mammandur,

§ Dalavanur, Thiruchirapalli, Siyamangalam, Thirukahundrum etc.

Narasimha varman style:

The third style is the structural temples in the Rajasimha style.

Ex. Kailasanatha temple.

Aparajitha varman style:

The last style is also the structural temples continued by the later pallavas.

Fine arts:-

§ The Pallava rulers also paid considerable attention to the fine arts of music and paintings.

§ The Pallava rulers also paid considerable attention to the fine arts of music and paintings.

§ Mahendra Varman assumed the title of Sankiranajati for his mastery in music and the title Chittirakara Puli for his skill in painting.

7th History

THE KINDOMS OF THE DECCAN

I choose the correct answer:

1. The Virupaksha temple is built on the model of the Kailasanatha temple.

2. The Rashtrakuta power became invincible during the time of Dhurva

5. Vishnuvarthana the Hoysala ruler shifted his capital from sosavir to Dwarasamudra.

4. The Kabatiya dynasty came to an end with the death of Vinayakadeva.

5. The most distinguished yadhava rular was Singhana.

II. Fill in the blanks:-

1. The Greatest king of the early westwern chalubbyas was PulikesanII

2. Kulothunga chola merged the chalukyan kingdom with the Chola Empire.

3. The descendants of the Rathors of the North were the Rashtrakutas.

4. Krishna I built the Kailasanatha temple at Ellora.

5. Ballala III was the last reat ruler of Hoysala dynasty.

III. MATCH THE FOLLOWING.

1. Pulakesin I – Early western challubyas.

2. Virupaksha Temple – Pattadakat.

3. Hoysalas – Dwarasamudra.

4. Kakatiyas – Waranal.

5. Yadavas – Devagiri.

IV. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS;-

1. What separated Deccan from North India?

The Deccan was separated from Northern India by the Vindhya and Satpura mountains, the

Narmadha and Tabti and the dense forests.

2. Why do we say that the Chalubyas were reat patrons of architecture?

The chatubyas were reat patrons of architecture.

They built around to vishnutemples in Aichole.

Hence, Aihole has been called the cradle of Indian temple architecture.

3. Write a short note on Dhurva, the Rashtrakuta ruler.

Dhurva was an able ruler.

He annexed Malva and made chabrayudha of kanoj to accept his overlordship.

He defeated the pallava ruler Dantiyarman; the king of Ceylon also accepted his suzerainty.

He defeated Vijayadita-II of vengi.

Thus the Rashtrakuta power became invincible during his time.

4. What do you know about the architecture of the Hoysala period?

The Hoysalas weregreat patrons of art, architecture and literature.

They constructed a number of temples at Dwarasamudra and Belur.

Scenes from Ramayana and Mahabharatha were depicted in those temples.

5. What led to the end of Deccan kingom?

The constant struggle among the rulers of the Deccan kingdoms weakened their rule. Further

the attacks on them by the sultans of Delhi ever since the rule of Alla-ud-din khilji led to their

decline.

V. ANSWER IN DETAIL:-

1. Given an account of the early western chalukyas.

· The chalukyas rose to power in Karnataka in the 6th century A.D.

· Their capital was vatapi, in the Bijapur district.

· Pulakesin-I was the real founder of this dynasty.

· He defeated Gangas, Malavas and Gujaras.

· He successfully opposed Harshas attack in the north.

· He made friendly alliances with the cholas, cheras and Pandiyas.

· In 642 A.D. Narasimhavarman-I invaded the chalukya kingdom and he lost his life during the war.

· Vikramadita-II was the other important rulers of this dynasty.

· The challukyas were not very significant for well over two centuries.

2. Give a detailed account of Dantidurga, the Rashtrakuta ruler.

· The greatness of the Rashtrakutas started with Dantidurga.

· He occupied Ellora in 742A.D.

· He captured Maharastra, Gujarat and most of the districts of central and northers Madhya Pradesh.

· He subjucated the cholas of Srisailam country.

· He entered into matrimonial alliances with Nandivarman II Pallavamalla of kanchi and gave his power; Dandi Durga attacked kirtivarman-II ande proclaimed himself the paramount ruler of the Deccan in 753 A.D.

· Rashtrakuta territory extended around Nasik in the Northern Deccan with Malkhed as its capital.

7th History

The North Indian Kingdoms

I choose the correct answer

1. The middle period or the medieval period extended from the 8th to 18th century.

2. The founder of the dynasty was Nagabhatta II.

3. Dharmapala founded the famous university at Vikramasila.

4. The most important ruler of the chauhan dynasty was Prithiviraj.

5. The capital of the paramaras was at Dhara.

II FILL IN THE BLANKS:

1. The Prathiharas also known as Gujarat Prathiharas.

2. Gopala extended his power over Magadha.

3. The Nalanda University renovated by Dharmapala.

4. Raja Bhoja constructed a beautiful lake near Bhopal.

5. Bhaskaracharya wrote siddhantha shoromani a book on Astronomy.

III Match the following:

1. Khajuraho temple – kanauj

2. Chand Bardai – Prithivi Raja Raso

3. Rajasekara – Karpura manjari

4. Sun Temple – Konark

5. Dilwara temple – Mount Abu.

IV Answer the following:

1. How is the medieval period of Indian History classified?

· Early Vedic period – (8th -12th) century.

· Later Vedic period – (13th -18th) century.

2. Name any four Rajput clans which ruled over north India.

· The Prathiras of Avanthi

· The Palas of Bengal

· The Chauhans of Delhi.

· The Rathors of kanauj.

3. Write a note on the nature of the rajputs.

ü The Rajputs were great warriors and chivalours by nature.

ü The women preferred death to dishonor.

ü They were educated and were highly honoured in society.

ü They took part in public life and wars.

ü Women”s performed sati and jachar to protect themselves from the hands of

the enemies and to avoid dishonour.

4. What was the contribution of the chandellas to temple architecture?

The Khajuraho group of temples, the hingaraja temple at Bubaneshwar, the sun temple at

Konark and the Dilwara temple at mount Abu are the contribution of the Rajputs.

5. Who was the founder of swisodiya dynasty? Where was its capital?

ü Bapa Rawal was the founder of the swisodiya dynasty.

ü Their capital was Chittor.

V Answer in detail:-

1. The origin of the Rajputs and their struggle for supremacy.

The 12th century the destiny of India was mostly in the hands of various Rajput

dynasties.

Origin of the Rajputs.

· The origin of Rajputs is an insolved mystery.

· The Rajputs were decendants of LordRama or Lord Krishna.

· Ancient Kshtriya families.

· Agrikula.

Struggle for supremacy:-

· During the Rajput period there were nearly 36 Rajput clans ruling over north India.

· A few of them were the Prathiharas, Palas, Chauhans, Tomars, Chandellas and Paramaras.

· There was no strong central authority.

· They lacked unity and struggled with one another.

2. What were the contributions made by the Rajputs in various fields?

Language and literature:

· During the Rajputs period, regional languages like Marathi, Gujarathi and Benali were well developed.

· The Bhabti saints and the folk singers played a major role in the development of regional languages.

· Some of the literary works of the period are kalhanas Rajatharangini, Jayadevas Gita govindham, Somadevas kathasaritasaar, Bhaskaracharyss Siddanta shiromani and Rajasekaras karpuramanjari and Bala Ramayana.

Art and architecture:

· Mural paintings and miniature paintings became popular during the Rajput period.

· The khajuraho group of temples, the lingaraja temple at Bhubaneshwar, the sun temple at konark and the Dilwara temple at Mount Abu are the fine specimans of the temple architecture of the Rajputs.

· The Khajuraho temples attract tourists from India and abroad.

· They built forts at Jaisalmar, chittor, Mandu, Jodhpur and Gwalior.