10th History

Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. South Indian Liberal Federation is otherwise known as the Justice party

2. Periyar transformed the Justice party into Dravidar Swarajya

3. The greatest social reformer of Tamil Nadu E.V. Ramasamy Naicker

4. Vaikam is a place in Kerala

5. C.N. Annadurai was affectionately called as Anna

6. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam was founded by C.N. Annadurai

7. C.N. Annadurai was conferred Doctorate by Annamalai University

8. Due to Dr. Muthulakshmi’s good efforts the cancer institute was started at Adayar

9. All India women conference was organized at Pune

10. Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy started an orphanage known as Avvai Illam

11. Dr. S. Dharmambal started an agitation for the cause of Tamil teachers called Elavuvaram

12. MoovalurRamamirdham was born in 1883

II. Match the following:

1. Justice  English News paper
2. Vaikam Hero  E.V. Ramasamy Periyar
3. Devadasi system  Dr. Muthu Lakshmi Reddy
4. VeeraTamilannai  Dr. S. Dharmambal
5. Justice party  T.M.Nair

III. Answer in following in brief:

1. Write a brief note on the rule of the Justice party.

Note on the rule of the Justice party

  • In the Election of 1920, the justice party secured a majority and SubbrayaluReddiar formed the ministry.
  • In 1923 Justice Party T. M. Sivagnanam Pillai formed the ministry.
  • In the election of 1926, with the support of Swarajya Party, A. Subbrayalu form the ministry.
  • In 1934 Congress party refused again the justice party formed ministry.
  • In 1937 election the justice party failed never recovered from the defeat.

2. What are the aims of Self Respect Movement?

The aims of Self Respect Movement

  • It fought against Brahmin domination.
  • It fought to abolish traditionalism and superstitions.
  • It advocated women education, widow remarriage, intercaste marriages and opposed child marriage.

3. Why do we call Periyar as “Vaikam Hero”?

  • He joined the non-cooperation movement.
  • He led the famous Vaikam Sathya Graha in 1924, where the people of downtrodden community were prohibited to enter into the Temple.
  • The Travancore government relaxed such segregation and allowed the people to enter into the temple. Hence Periyar was given the title of “Vaikam Hero”.

4. Mention the services rendered by Annadurai as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.

  • He introduced the scheme of 1kg rice for Re.1.
  • He also introduced Tamil Language Development Scheme.
  • On the first day of Chittirai (4-4-1967) on Tamil New Year day, Anna changed name from “Madras” to “Tamizhaga Arasu” or “Tamizhagam”.
  • He announced “Satyamevajayavate” would appear as “Vaimaye Vellum”.

5. Narrate Dr. Muthu Lakshmi’s role in the agitation against Devadasi system

  • Dr. Muthu Lakshmi Reddy was not only interested in medicine but also in politics and social reforms.
  • She dedicated herself in removing the cruel practice Devadasi system from Tamil Nadu.
  • Gandhiji praised her against Devadasi system.
  • Appreciating her agitation against Devadasi system she was nominated to the Tamilnadu Legislative Council in 1929.
  • As a result the Justice party Government enacted a law abolishing Devadasi system.

6. What did Dr. S. Dharmambal do to the Tamil Teachers?

  • The Tamil teachers had no due recognition in the society.
  • They were not paid equal salary like other teachers.
  • She started an agitation called “ElavuVaram”.
  • As a result the Educational Minister announced equal pay to Tamil teachers like other teachers.

7. Write a note on the services rendered by Moovalur Ramamirdham for her community.

  • ”Moovalue Ramamirtham belonged to Isai Vellalar caste
  • Girls of this caste were sacrificed to temples to do service to God.
  • They were ill-treated and humiliated by the landlords and zamindars in the name of caste.
  • On seeing this she decided to flight for their emancipation.
  • She spoke all over the country and won the support of many leaders.
  • She joined the Indian National Party and organized the conference of Isai Vellalar at Mayiladudurai in 1925.
  • She was also one of the important person for the abolition of devadasi system

IV. Answer all the questions given under each caption

1. THE JUSTICE PARTY

[a] Who established the Justice party?

T. M. Nair and Thiyagaraya Chetty.

[b] When did the Justice party come to power?

In 1920.

[c] When was it defeated?

In 1937.

[d] Write any two achievements of the Justice party.

The Justice Party government set right the imbalances in the representation of different communities and improved the status of Depresses Classes. In 1925 Andra University and in 1929 Annamalai University were opened.

2. SELF RESPECT MOVEMENT

[a] Who started the Self Respect Movement?

E. V. Ramasamy Periyar.

[b] Why did he start?

To spread and execute his ideas and policies.

[c] When was it started?

In 1925.

[d] Name the laws passed by the Government due to the constant struggle of Self – Respect Movement.

Widow Re-Marriage Act, Women’s Right to Property Act, Abolition of Devadasi Act.

V. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. Write a paragraph on the formation and achievements of the Justice party.

The justice movement:

  • The Justice Party was officially known as South Indian Liberal Federation.
  • This party was established in 1916 by T. M. Nair and Thiyagaraja Chetty.
  • The Justice Party represented Non-Brahmin movement.
  • This party published “Dravidan” in Tamil, “Andhra Prakasika” in Telugu and “Justice” in English. Hence it came to be called as the “Justice Party”.

Achievements of the Justice Party:

  • The Justice Party improved the status of depressed classes.
  • The Communal G. O.’s of 1921 and 1922 provided reservation for Non-Brahmins.
  • For the benefit of all communities, College Committees were created.
  • In 1925 Andhra University and in 1929 Annamalai University were opened.
  • To regulate temple accounts, in 1926 the Hindu Religious Endownment Bill was passed.
  • The Women were granted the right to vote in 1921
  • Abolished Devadasi system.
  • The system of giving free pattas for housing sites to the poor.
  • Introduced mid-day meal schemes at thousand lights.
  • It gave encouragement to Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani Medical Education.

3. Dr. Muthu Lakshmi’s contribution to Tamil Society is beyond description – Prove statement.

Muthu Lakshmi’s contribution to Tamil Society

  • She dedicated herself in removing the cruel practice Devadasi system from Tamil Nadu.
  • Appreciating her agitation against Devadasi system she was nominated to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Council in 1929.
  • The Cancer Institute at Adayar was started due to her good efforts.
  • In 1930, she organized All India Women Conference at Pune. She was the President of Indian Women Association from 1933 to 1947.
  • She also started AvvaiIllam an orphanage at Santhome in Madras.

3. “MoovalurRamamirdham is a freedom fighter and a Social Reformer” – Justify the statement.

  • ”MoovalurRamamirtham” belonged to Isai vellalar caste
  • Girls of this caste were sacrificed to temples to do service to God.
  • They were ill-treated and humiliated by the landlords and zamindars in the name of caste.
  • On seeing this she decided to fight for their emancipation.
  • She spoke all over the country and won the support of many leaders.
  • She joined the Indian National Party and organized the conference if Isai Vellalar at Mayiladudurai in 1925 and got moral support by Rajaji, Periyar and Thiru. Vi. Ka.
  • She inspired women to take part in the National movement on a large scale.
  • In her memory, “Moovalur Ramamirtham Ammal Ninaivu Marriage Assistance scheme”, a social welfare scheme to provide financial assistance to poor women.
10th History

Role of Tamil Nadu in the Freedom Movement

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Indian soldiers were instigated by the sons of Tipu Sultan

2. The first organization in the Madras Presidency to agitate for the rights of people was the Madras Native Association

3. The first President of the Madras Mahajana Sabha was P. Rangiah Naidu

4. At Vedaranyam the Salt law was broken by Rajagopalachari

5. In 1908 Bharathiar organized a huge public meeting to celebrate Swaraj Day

6. Faced with the prospectus of arrest by the British, Bharathi escaped to Pondicherry

7. The Headquarters of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee is named as Sathyamurthi Bhavan

8. In 1940, Kamaraj went to Wardha to meet Gandhiji

9. Kamaraj served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for 9 years

10. Kamaraj was famous for policy “K” plan

II. Match the following:

1. Swadeshi Exhibition  Madras Mahajana Sabha
2. Chanakya  Rajaji
3. King maker  Kamaraj
4. Sathyamurthi  Poondi Reservoir
5. FatehHyder  Vellore Mutiny

III. Answer the following brief:

1. Write a brief note on Vellore Mutiny

Vellore Mutiny

  • The British administration prohibited the Hindu soldiers from smearing religious marks and Muslims to shave their beard moustache.
  • This created a strong resentment among the soldiers and to revolt against the British.
  • It was on July 9, 1806 one of Tipu Sultan’s daughter wedding in Vellore. The soldiers surrounded the fort and killed most the Europeans and unfurled the flag of Tipu over the fort.
  • The British crushed the revolt.

2. What do you know about Thiruppur Kumaran?

Thiruppur Kumaran

  • TiruppurKumaran (1904-1932) was born in Cheenimalai, Erode District in Tamil Nadu.
  • He participated in the march against the ban of the national flag.
  • He died from a police assault.
  • Kumaran died holding the flag of the Indian Nationalists.
  • Famously known as kodikathakumaran

3. Write a note about Subramania Siva.

Subramania Siva

  • Subramania Siva was born in Vathalagundu in Dindugul district.
  • He was freedom fighter and a creative writer.
  • He was arrested many times between 1908 and 1922.
  • He was affected by leprosy.
  • British Government enacted a law stating that leprosy patient should not travel by rail.
  • Subramania Siva travelled the whole length of Madras province on foot covered with sores.
  • He died of the disease on 23rd July 1925.

4. Give an account on Vanchinathan’s role in the struggle for freedom.

Vanchinathan’s role in the struggle for freedom

  • Vanchinathan was under the service of the State of Travancore. The activities of the extremists greatly alarmed the British.
  • The collector Ashe, shot down and killed four persons in Thirunelveli.
  • He wanted to take revenge against the Collector.
  • He secretly went to Maniyachi Railway Station and shot dead Ashe on 17th June 1911, and he himself committed suicide.

5. Name the papers edited by Subramaniya Bharathiar in 1907.

The papers edited by Subramaniya Bharathiar in 1907

The Tamil weekly “India”.

The English newspaper “Bala Bharatham”.

6. Mention some of the poems of Subramania Bharathiar.

The poems of Subramania Bharathiar

“Vande Matharam”

“Enthaiyumthayum”

“Jaya Bharatham”.

7. What was Sathyamurthi’s Service as a Mayor

Sathyamurthi’s Service as a Mayor

  • When Sathyamurthi became, the Mayor of Madras in 1939, the city was in the grip of an acute water scarcity and it was left to him impress upon the British Governor for building Reservoir in Poondi about 50kms west of the city.
  • Kamaraj named it as Satyamurthi Sahar.
  • Congress head office named as Sathyamoorthy Bavan

8. Write a note on the welfare measures taken by Kamaraj.

Kamaraj introduced various welfare measures like

  • Opening of new schools,
  • Free education
  • Mid-day meals scheme,
  • Construction of dams and canals to improve agriculture and
  • Launching of new industries in Tamil Nadu.

9. why was Kamaraj called as ”King Maker”?

  • He played a significant role in the National Politics also.
  • He was called as “King Maker”, as he made Lal Bahadur Sashtri as the Prime Minister of India in 1964 and Mrs. Indira Gandhi in 1966 after the death of Sastri.
  • Kamaraj was famous for his policy known as “K” Plan.

IV. Answer all the questions given under each caption:

1. C. RAJAGOPALACHARIYAR

[a] When and where was he born?

December 10th 1878 at Thovarappalli.

[b] Why did he resign his Chief Ministership in 1939?

He resigned his Chief Ministership in 1939 in protest against the use of Indian men and materials in the Second World War by the British Government without their concern.

[c] What did he introduce during his second term?

Kula KalviThittam.

[d] Why was he often referred as “Chanakya”?

For his diplomatic skills.

2. K. KAMARAJ

[a] How did he enter into politics?

Taking part in VaikamSathyagraha in 1924.

[b] Where was he kept in prison in 1930?

Alipore Jail.

[c] Where did he hoist the Indian National flag in 1947?

He hoisted the Indian National flag in Sathyamoorthy”s house in 1947.

[d] When did he die?

He died on October 2nd 1975.

V. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. Explain the contribution of Madras Mahajana Sabha.

Madras Mahajan Sabha

  • The first organization was the Madras Native Association. It was established by Harley, Lakshminarasu Chety and Srinivasa Pillai in 1852.
  • It merged with the Madras Mahajana Sabaha established by S. Ramaswami Mudhaliar, P. Anandacharlu and R. Rangaiya Naidu.
  • D. Rangaiah Naidu was elected first President of the Sabha.
  • Madras Mahajana Sabha paved the way for our national freedom.
  • The sabaha voiced out the fundamental rights of our countrymen.
  • The Sabha organized the Salt Satyagraha movement on April 22nd in Madras at beach, fort, splanade etc.
  • The members were attacked as the Sabha insisted on a legal enquiry under the leadership of Justice.

T. R. Ramachandra Iyer. 

  • A three-man commission enquired thirty people and submitted its report to the government.
  • Mahajana Sabha conducted exhibitions to instigate the patriotic feelings in the hearts our countrymen as Khadi Exhibition and Swadeshi Exhibition.
  • Mahatma Gandhiji had delivered a speech in the meeting of Mahajana Sabha on October 24th 1896 at golden jubilee.

2. Bharathiar is a freedom fighter – prove.

Subramaniya Bharathiyar:-

  • Subramaniya Bharathi was born on December 11, 1882 at Ettayapuram in Tirunelveli District. He worked as Tamil Teacher in 1904 at Madurai.
  • He became the assistant editor of the Swadeshimitran
  • He published Tamil weekly “India” and The English newspaper “BalaBharatham”.
  • In 1908, he organized a “Swaraj Day”.
  • His poems “Vandematharam”, “Enthaiyumthayum”, “Jaya Bharatham”.
  • In 1908, he gave evidence in the case of “KappalotiyaThamizhan”, against British.
  • Bharathi escaped to Pondicherry under the French rule, and was arrested and released after three weeks in custody in November 1918.
  • Those were the years of hardship and poverty. Again he joined as the chief editor in the swadeshi mithran
  • He passed away on September 11, 1921.
10th History

FREEDOM MOVEMENT IN INDIA PHASE – II [GANDHIAN ERA .A.D. 1920 – .A.D. 1947

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Gandhiji advocated a new technique in our freedom struggle Sathyagraha

2. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the ______ party Swaraj

3. The Indian Constitution was formally adopted on January 26, 1950

4. In 1932, the British Government announced a scheme known as Communal award

5. The British Viceroy responsible for involving Indians in the Second World War was Linlithgow

6. To form the interim Government Nehru sought the help of Jinnah

7. First and last Indian Governor General of India is Rajagopalachari

8. The task of unifying Indian states was undertaken by SardarVallabai Patel

9. First President of India is Dr. Rajendra Prasad

II. Match the following:

1. Sardar Vallabhai Patel  Bismarck of India
2. Pondicherry  French possession
3. Goa  Portuguese possession
4. Dr. B.R.Ambedkar  Drafting committee
5. Lord Mount Batten  First Governor General of free India
1. Motilal Nehru  Swarajya party
2. Chauri Chaura  Uttar Pradesh
3. Lion of Punjab  Lala Lajpat Rai
4. Communal Award  Ramsay Mac Donald
5. Frontier Gandhi  Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan

III. Answer the following in brief:

1. What are the changes introduced by the Government of India Act of

1935?

This act

(1) Introduced provincial autonomy,

(2) Abolished diarchy in the provinces,

(3) Established Federal Government at the Centre,

(4) The establishment of a federal court

(5) The establishment of a Federal Reserve Bank.

2. What is the importance of the Lahore session of the Muslim League?

The importance of the Lahore session of the Muslim League

  • In March 1940, at the League session of the Muslim League, the demand for a separate nation of Pakistan was made.
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah put forth the “Two Nation Theory” that is, two different Nations namely India and Pakistan.
  • A separate home-land comprised of the Muslims were in majority.

3. What was the resolution passed in the Lahore Session of the Congress in 1929?

The Lahore Congress-1929

  • The Congress met at Lahore under the Presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1929.
  • It declared Purna Swaraj or Complete Independence.
  • At midnight on 31, December 1929, the tri colour flag was unfurled amidst the Slogans Vande Mataram.
  • January 26, 1930, was celebrated as Independence day.
  • Now January 26, 1950 celebrated as Republic Day.

4. Write a short note on the Cabinet Mission.

The Cabinet Mission (1946)

  • In March 1946 the cabinet mission under Pethick Lawrence, A.V. Alexander and Sir Stafford Cripps visited India to transfer of power.
  • The committee recommended Federal Government.
  • Till the Constitution was ready an Interim Government be set up at the Centre.

5. Name the States comprised of Pakistan.

The States comprised of Pakistan

West Punjab, Sind, North West Frontier Province and east Bengal and Sylhet district of Assam.

IV. Answer all the questions given under each caption:

1. SIMON COMMISSION

[a] Why was Simon Commission appointed?

To enquire into the working of the Act of 1919 and to suggest further measures to improve Indian administration.

[b] Why was it an insult to the Indians?

All the members of this commission were English men. It did not have any Indian member. The fact that no Indian was included to review the conditions and plans for the future of their own country was on insult to the Indians.

[c] How was Simon Commission greeted?

Go Back Simon.

[d] Name the Indian leader who died during the Simon Commission agitation.

Lala Lajpat Rai.

2. THE AUGUST OFFER

[a] When was the August offer an announced?

In 1940.

[b] What was promised for India after Second World war?

Dominion Status for India, after the war.

[c] Why was the committee set up?

For framing the Indian Constitution.

[d] Who would be appointed in the war council of the Viceroy?

Indian.

3. THE MOUNT BATTEN PLAN

[a] Who became the Governor General of India in 1947?

Lord Mount Batten.

[b] Who was the last British Governor General?

Lord Mount Batten.

[c] What was Mount Batten Plan?

According to this plan India had to be divided into two independent countries namely Indian Union and the Pakistan Union. The Princely States were given the option to join remain independent.

[d] What was the reaction of the Congress and Muslim League?

 Both the Congress and the Muslim league accepted this plan.

V. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. Explain the stages of Non-co-operation Movement of 1920-22. Why was it suspended?

Non-Cooperation Movement 1920-1922

The movement was started in 1920. The movement was observed in three stages

First stage: Indians who received titles and honours from the British renounced the in protest

Second stage: Large scale hartals were conducted schools and colleges were boycotted

Third stage: The most important and final stage of the movement was nonpayment of tax

The Chauri-Chaura incident on February 5, 1922 a procession of 1000 peasants was organized.

The police fired at the peasants

The angry peasants attacked and burnt the police station killing 22 police men

Gandhiji was upset and suspended the Non co-operation movement immediately

2. Write a short note on Salt Sathyagraha.

Note on Salt Sathyagraha

  • Gandhi started civil dis-obedience movement in 1930
  • The British government levied tax on common salt it hit the poor hard
  • The civil disobedience movement was started on 12th March 1930.
  • Gandhiji and 78 chosen followers including Sarojini Naidu left Sabarmati ashram to Dandi to break the salt laws. It covered 400kms. This march is popularly known as Dandi March
  • The slogan vandematram echoed everywhere
  • Gandhiji broke the salt laws by preparing salt from sea
  • In Tamilnadu C.Rajagopalachari organized a march from Trichy to Vedaranyam to break the salt laws

3. What is the importance of Three Round Table Conference?

Importance of Three Round Table Conference 1930:-

  • The British could not suppress the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • To solve the political dead lock, the British called the First Round Table Conference at London in 1930.
  • It was not attended by the congress, It ended in failure.
  • An understanding was reached between Gandhi and Lord Irwin as Gandhi-Irwin Pact-1931

The Second Round Table Conference-1931

  • Held in London. As no decision could be reached, it ended in failure.
  • The Civil Disobedience Movement was once again revived.
  • The Communal Award and Poona pact of 1932 to provide separate electorates for the minorities.
  • Gandhiji protested against this and went on a fast unto death.

Third Round Table Conference-1932

  • Held in London.
  • It ended in failure without the participation of the congress leaders.

4 Write a paragraph on Quit India Movement.

Quit India Movement-1942

  • The failure of Cripps Mission brought about a change in Gandhi’s attitude.
  • He asked for the complete withdrawal of the British from India.
  • Congress leaders felt that the presence of English in India would naturally invite Japan to invade India. Therefore Indians demanding the immediate withdrawal of the British from India.
  • Gandhi’s memorable speech, “I am not going to be satisfied with anything of complete freedom. We shall do or die. We shall either free India or die in the attempt”.
  • On the very next day Gandhi, prominent leaders of the Congress were arrested.
  • After the war Atlee came to power in England. Atlee deputed a mission to find a solution for India’s problems.
10th History

FREEDOM MOVEMENT IN INDIA – PHASE – I [PREGANDHIAN ERA A.D. 1885 – A.D.1919]

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The Unification of the country was brought by the British. Imperialism

2. The language of the educated Indians was English

3. The religious and social reformers prepared the ground for the rise of Nationalism

4. The policies of the moderates were described by the Extremists as Political mendicancy

5. Open split in the Congress occurred in the sessions held at Surat

6. The Minto – Morley reforms introduced Separate electorate for the Muslims

7. Home Rule League in Bombay was formed by Tilak

II. Match the following:

1. Iswar Chandra Vidhya Sagar  Religious and Social Reformer
2. Subramania Bharathi  Patriotic writer
3. Swadeshi  Of one’s own country
4. New India  Mrs. Annie Besant
5. Kesari  Bala Gangadhar Tilak

III. Answer the following:

1. How Indian press and literature did paved the way for the rise of national movement?

  • Newspapers like the Indian mirror, Bombay Samachar, the Amrit Bazaar Patrika, the Hindu, the Kesari, and Maratha echoed the public opinion.
  • The writings of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Rabindranath Tagore, Subramania Bharathi patriotic writers brought national awakening among the Indians.
  • Vernacular Press act of 1878, curbed the freedom of the press. It led to agitation and unrest among the people.

2. What were the aims of Indians National Congress?

The aims of Indians National Congress

  • More facilities for the spread of Education
  • Freedom of press,
  • Holding of Indian Civil Service (I.C.S) examination in India,
  • Indian Council at London should be abolished.

3. Name some of the important moderate leaders.

The important moderate leaders areSurendranath Banarjee, Dadabai Naoroji, Pheroze Sha Mehta, Gopala Krishna Gokhale, and M.G.Ranade were some of the important moderate leaders.

4. Write a note on the formation of the Muslim League.

The formation of the Muslim League

Activities of the Indian National Congress created fear in the minds of the Muslims.

In 1906 the all India Muslim League was formed under the leadership of Salimullah Khan.

The aim of the Muslim League was to protect the rights of the Muslims and to make a demand for a separate electorate.

5. Mention the importance of Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress in 1916.

Lucknow Pact-1916:-

The moderates and the extremists joined together.

The Congress and the Muslim co-operated with each other in order to achieve self-government.

It was at this session Jawaharlal Nehru met Gandhiji for the first time.

IV. Answer all the questions given under each Caption:

1. FACTORS LEADING TO THE RISE OF NATIONAL MOVEMENT

[a] How did the National leaders inspire the people?

They inspired the people with the ideas of self-respect and self-confidence. They encouraged people to fight against the foreign rule.

[b] When was the Vernacular Press Act passed?

In 1878.

[c] What was the policy of the British?

“Divide and Rule”.

[d] How did the British consider the Indians?

As an inferior and uncivilized.

2. THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS

[a] When was the Indian National Congress founded?

In 1885.

[b] On whose advice was it founded?

Allan Octavian Hume, a retired British civil servant.

[c] Where was the first session of the congress held? Who was the chair person?

Bombay, W.C. Bannerjee.

[d] Name some of the leaders who attended the first session of the Congress.

DadabaiNaroji, Surendranath Banerjee, Madan Mohan Malavya, Mahadev Govind Ranade, Gopala Krishna Gokale, Pheroze Shah Metha, G. Subramaniya Iyer.

3. EXTREMISTS

[a] Name the extremists leaders.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai and Arabind Ghose.

[b] What did Tilak declare?

“Swaraj is my Brith Right and I shall have it”.

[c] Name the festivals revived by Tilak.

Ganapthi & Shivaji.

[d] What was the desire of the militant nationalists?

The Militant nationalists desired to change not only the aim of the congress but also the means to attain it.

4. JALLIAN WALA BAGH TRAGEDY

[a] Who were the prominent leaders arrested?

Two prominent leaders of Punjab Dr. Satyapal and Dr. SaifuddinKitchlew were arrested on April 13, 1919.

[b] Where did the people gather?

More than 10, 000 people gathered in JalianWalaBagh at Amitsar to protest peacefully against the arrest of their leaders.

[c] Who was the British Military commander of Amritsar?

General Dyer.

[d] What did Rabindranath Tagore do?

Rabindranth Tagore renounced his knighthood in protest against this incident.

V. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. Write any five factors that promoted the rise of National Movement.

Factors leading to the rise of nationalist movement

British Imperialism

The British imperialism made the people of the whole of India think as one nation.

Contact with the European countries:-

  • India came into close contact with various European countries.
  • Indians came into contact with the ideas and culture of western countries.
  • Indians were motivated by the unification of Germany and Italy.

Modern methods of Transport and Communication:-

It greatly helped the Indian leaders to carry on their ideas to every nook and corner of the country. Gave a momentum of the nationalist movement in the country.

The Great Leaders of India

  • The Great Scholars, Raja Rammohan Roy, Vivekananda, Tilak, Nehru, Gandhi inspired the people with the ideas of self-respect and self confidence encouraged people to fight against foreign rule.
  • Newspapers like the Indian mirror, Bombay Samachar, the Amrit Bazaar Patrika, the Hindu, the Kesari and Maratha echoed the public opinion.
  • The writings of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Rabindranath Tagore, SubramaniaBharathi patriotic writers brought national awakening among the Indians.
  • Vernacular Press Act of 1878, curbed the freedom of the press. It led to agitation and unrest among the people.

3. Write a paragraph on Partition of Bengal.

Partition of Bengal-1905

  • In 1905 Lord Curzon made the Partition of Bengal. He divided Bengal into two parts- East Bengal and Assam on one side West Bengal and Bihar on the other side.
  • Lord Curzon made a statement that the partition was purely on administrative grounds.
  • Indians thought that it was to break the unity of the people
  • They called it as an introduction of the policy of “Divide and Rule”.
  • Partition was revoked in 1911.
  • It paved the way for the birth of the Swadeshi Movement, means of “One’s own country”.
  • It encouraged the progress of Indian industries and boycott of foreign goods.
10th History

Social and Religious Reform Movement in the 19th Century

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The pioneer of the reform movements was Raja Rammohan Roy

2. Lord William Bentinck passed an Act in 1829 to abolish Sati due to the efforts of Raja Rammohan Roy

3. Swami Dayanandha Saraswathi started the Arya Samaj

4. The headquarters of the Rama Krishna mission is at Belur

5. Vallalar’s devotional songs are compiled in a volume called Thiru Arutpa

6. Sir Syed Ahamed Khan started the Aligarh movement

7. Sir Syed Ahamed Khan started a school at Ghazipur

8. A great socialist reformer from Kerala is Sri Narayana Guru

II. Match the following

1. Herald of New Age  Raja Rammohan Roy
2. Martin Luther of Hinduism  Swami Dayanandha Saraswathi
3. New India  Mrs. Annie Besant
4. Photo Voltic Lighting System  Ramakrishna Mission
5. Vallalar Ramalinga Adigal

III. Answer the following in brief:

1. Write a note on Prarthana Samaj

A note on Prarthana Samaj

  • Prarthana Samaj was founded in Bombay in 1867 by Dr. Atmaran Pandurang.
  • It advocated inter-dining, inter-caste marriage, widow re-marriage, downtrodden classes.
  • The samaj abolition of Purdha System and Child marriage.

2. What are the services rendered by the Arya Samaj?

The services rendered by the Arya Samaj

  • Swami Dayananda Sarawathi founded the Arya Samaj in 1875. His original name was Mul Shankar.
  • His motto was “Go back to Vedas”.
  • The Arya Samaj condemned animal sacrifice, idol worship, ritualism.
  • He started the “Suddhi Movement”.
  • The Arya Samaj opposed child marriage, Polygamy, Purdha system, Casteism and sati and advocated women education, intercaste marriage and inter-dining.
  • The Samaj started Dayananda Anglo Vedic (DAV) schools and colleges.

3. Mention the main principles of the Theosophical Society.

The main principles of the Theosophical Society

  • To develop the feeling of fraternity,
  • To study ancient religions, philosophy and science,
  • To find out the laws of Nature and development of divine power in man.

4. What are the teachings of Vallalar?

The teachings of Vallalar

  • One of the primary teachings of Vallalar is “Service to mankind is the path of Moksha”.
  • God is the personification of mercy and knowledge.
  • The path of compassion and mercy are the only path to God.

5. What was the aim of Outcastes Welfare Assocation? [Bahisikrit Hitkaraini Sabha]

The aim of Outcastes Welfare Association

  • In July 1924, Dr. Ambedkar founded the Bahiskrit Hitkaraini Sabha (Outcastes Welfare Association)
  • Aim of the Sabah was to uplift the downtrodden.
  • In 1927 he led the Mahad March near Bombay, to give the untouchables the right to draw water from the public tank.

6. Point out the impacts of Social and Religious Reform Movements in the 19th Century.

The impacts of Social and Religious Reform Movements in the 19th Century.

  • To abolish some of the evils like sati, child marriage.
  • It promoted education, encouraged widow remarriage, inter-caste marriages and inter-dining.
  • It instilled sprit of nationalism in the minds of Indians.
  • It made the people to be proud of their culture and glory.

IV. Answer all the questions given under each caption:

1. BRAHMO SAMAJ

[a] Who founded Brahmo Samaj?

Raja Ram Mohan Rai.

[b] What were the languages learnt by Raja Rammohan Roy?

He learnt Arabic, Sanskrit and Persian. Later on he learnt English, French, Latin, Greek and Hebrew languages.

[c] Name the books written by Raja Rammohan Roy.

“Precepts of Jesus Christ”.

[d] What did Brahmo Samaj believe?

The Brahmo Samaj believed in a “Universal religion” based on the principle of one supreme God.

2. ARYA SAMAJ

[a] What was the original name of Swami Dayanandha Saraswathi?

Mul Shankar.

[b] Who was his guru?

Swami Virjanand.

[c] What was his motto?

“Go back to Vedas”.

[d] What did the Samaj advocate?

Women education, intercaste marriage and inter dining.

3. THE THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY

[a] Who was the founder of the Theosophical Society?

Madame Blavatsky and an American Colonel Henry. S. Olcott in USA.

[b] Why was it founded?

To preach about God and Wisdom.

[c] Who was the President of the Society in 1893?

Mrs. Annie Besant.

[d] Where is the headquarters of this society located?

Adyar in Chennai.

4. RAMAKRISHNA MISSION

[a] Who was Ramakrishna Paramahamsa?

He was a religious reformer (or) He was a priest in the Dakshineswar Kali Temple.

[b] Who founded the Ramakrishna Mission?

Swami Vivekandanda.

[c] When and where was the Parliament of Religions held?

In 1893, Chicago in the USA.

[d] Who represented the Hindu religion at the Parliament of religions?

Swami Vivekananda.

5. ALIGARH MOVEMENT

[a] Name the first religious movements of the Muslims.

Aligarh Movement.

[b] What did Sir Syed Ahmed Khan strongly believe?

Hindu-Muslim Unity.

[c] What was his greatest achievement?

The establishment of the Mohammaden Anglo Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875.

[d] Name the newspaper published by him.

Tahzil-ud-Akhlaq.

6. Dr. B.R. AMBEDHKAR

[a] Who is the messiah of dalits and downtrodden?

Dr. B.R. Ambedhkar.

[b] Who was the first Law Minister of India?

Dr. B.R. Ambedhkar.

[c] How was he honoured by the Government of India?

Bharath Ratna in 1990.

[d] Why did he lead the Mahad March near Bombay?

To give the untouchables the right to draw water from the public tank against the Manusmriti publicly.

V. Answer in a paragraph:

1. Write a paragraph on Brahmo Samaj

Brahmo Samaj-1928:-

  • Raja Rammohan Roy founded “Atmiya Saba” (1815) which later developed into Brahmo Samaj in 1828.
  • The Brahmo Samaj believed in a “universal religion” based on one supreme god.
  • Samaj condemned idol worship, untouchability case distinctions, and the practice of sati.
  • It was because of Raja Rammohan Sati Prohibition Act, passed in 1829.
  • He also fought against polygamy child marriage and supported intercaste marriage and widow remarriage.
  • He encouraged the study of English language and various superstitions, blind-faiths and the like were removed from India.
  • After the death of Raja Rammohan Roy, the work of the Samaj was carried by Keshab Chandra Sen and Devendranath Tagore.

2. Explain the activities of the Ramakrishna Mission.

The activities of Ramkrishna Mission cover the following areas:

  • Educational work, Health care, cultural activities, rural upliftment, Tribal welfare, and Youth movement.
  • The Ramakrishna Mission has its own hospitals, maternity clinics, and mobile dispensaries. It also maintains training centres for nurses.
  • In educational activities it has its own university, colleges, and vocational training centres.
  • The Ramakrishna Mission has also involved in disaster relief operations during famine, epidemic, fire, flood, earthquake and cyclones.
  • The Ramakrishna Mission played an important role in the installation of Photovoltaic (PV) lighting system in the Sundarbans.

3. “Ramalinga Adigal played a prominent role in the social and religious reform movements” – Justify

  • St. Ramalinga led to unity and solidarity of the Tamils.
  • He condemned the inequalities based on birth and promoted universal love and brother-hood.
  • He founded Sathya Dharma Salai at Vandalur for feeding the poor.
  • St. Ramalinga had the view that love is the “Master key to spirituality”.
  • Vallalar showed his mercy on plants, insects, birds and animals. This is called “Jeeva Karunya”.
  • He opposed the superstitious beliefs and rituals.
  • He emphasized on “being vegetarian”.
  • One of the primary teachings of Vallalar is “Service to mankind is the path of Moksha”.
  • God is the personification of mercy and knowledge.
  • In 1870, he established “Sathya Gnana Sabai”.
  • His devotional songs are compiled in a volume called “Thiru Arutpa”.
10th History

The Great Revolt of 1857

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The British historians call the revolt of 1857 as Military revolt

2. Indian historians describe the Revolt of 1857 as First war of Indian Independence

3. During the great revolt of 1857 the Governor General of India was Lord Canning

4. The peasants had to pay heavy revenue taxes

5. Resumption of rent free system was introduced by Lord Bentinck

6. General Services Enlistment Act was passed in 1856

7. The first sign of unrest appeared at Barrackpore

8. The Sepoys broke out into open revolt at Meerut

9. The wife of Nawab of Oudh was Begum Hazarat Mahal

10. After 1857 revolt the Governor General of India was designated as Viceroy of India

II. Match the following

1. Managal Pandey  Barrack pore
2. Bahadur Shah II  Delhi
3. Nana Sahib  Cawnpore
4. Begum HazaratMahal  Lucknow
5. Rani Lakshmi Bai  Central India
1. Rani Lakshmi Bai  Jhansi
2. Bahadur Shah II  Mughal Emperor
3. The Great Revolt  1857
4. Lucknow  Colin Campbell
5. Queen Victoria proclamation  Magna Carta

III. Answer the following in brief:

1. What were the social and religious causes for the Great Revolt of 1857?

The social and religious causes for the Great Revolt of 1857

  • The abolition of sati and female infanticides.
  • Widow Remarriage was legalized.
  • The Hindu law of property was changed.
  • The British imposed taxes on the lands belonging to temples and mosques.

2. Name the important leaders and centres of the mutiny.

Leaders of the Revolt:-

Delhi  Bhadur Shah-II
Central India  Rani Laxmi Bai
Lucknow  Begum Hazarat Mahal
Kanpur  Tantia Tope, Nana Saheb

3. Write a note on the Revolt at Delhi.

The Revolt at Delhi

  • Sir Archdale Wilson, Nicholson and Sir John Lawrence who freed Delhi from the rebels.
  • The city was sacked and the people were massacred mercilessly.
  • Bahadur Shah II, was tried for treason and he was exiled to Rangoon.
  • Where he died at the age of eighty seven.

4. Mention the importance of Queen Victoria’s proclamation.

The importance of Queen Victoria’s proclamation

  • A Royal Durbar was held at Allahabad in November 1, 1858. The proclamation issued by Queen Victoria.
  • It was read by lord canning.
  • It is described as the “Magna Carta”.
  • It confirmed the earlier treaties.
  • It promised to pay due regard customs of India.
  • Granted general pardon to all offenders except the murder of the British subjects.
  • The revolt aroused national feelings and it served as a source of inspiration for freedom in 1947.

5. How did the British Cripple Indian trade?

British Cripple Indian trade

  • The British imposed heavy duties on imported goods in British
  • British goods were imported in India at nominal duty
  • The Indian weavers received very low wages
  • They destroyed cotton textile industries and Indian lost employment

6. What was the immediate cause for the Revolt of 1857?

The immediate cause for the Revolt of 1857

  • The greased cartridges supplied for the new Enfield Rifles was the immediate cause for the mutiny.
  • Cartridges had to be bitten off before loading.
  • Believing that the fat of Cow and Pig had been used to grease these cartridges.
  • Both Hindus and Muslims refused to use him.
  • The cow is sacred to the Hindus and pig is detestable to the Muslims.

7. Why was not the revolt widespread?

Because of

  • Disunity among the Indians was the first and the foremost cause.
  • The educated Indians did not support the movement in general.
  • The rulers did not support the movement, remained neutral.
  • The rebellious soldiers were short of modern weapons

IV. Answer all the questions given under each caption:

1. POLITICAL CAUSES FOR THE REVOLT OF 1857

[a] Who introduced Subsidiary Alliance?

Lord Wellesley.

[b] Name the policy introduced by Lord Dalhousie

Doctrine of Lapse.

[c] What was the order issued by the British against the Mughal emperor?

The British ordered the successors to give their ancestral palace and Red fort.

[d] Why did Nana Saheb develop a grudge against the British?

By stopping pension to Nana Sahib adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II.

2. REVOLT AT CAWNPORE

[a] Who joined the rebels at Cawnpore and with whom?

Nana sahib, the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II joined the revolt at Cawnpore.

[b] What happened to the English?

Many Englishmen surrendered. English Men, Women and Children were massacred mercilessly.

[c] Who defeated Nana Saheb?

Sir Colin Campbell with able commander.

[d] When was Cawnpore brought under British control?

By the Middle of November 1857.

3. REVOLT AT CENTRAL INDIA

[a] Who led the revolt at Central India?

Rani Lakshmi Bai.

[b] Name the place captured by Rani Lakshmi Bai.

Gwalior.

[c] What was her end?

She was killed in the battle in June 1858.

[d] What did Tantia Tope do?

Tantia Tope escaped but he was captured and put to death.

V. Answer the following in a Paragraph:

1. What were the Administrative and Military causes of the Great Revolt of 1857?

Administrative Cause:-

  • The Indians disliked administration of the British.
  • The replacement of Persian language by English as the court language.
  • The judicial system of the British was costly.
  • The most affected part of British administration was revenue system.
  • The peasants had to pay heavy taxes.
  • The British excluded the Indians from all high civil and military jobs.

Military causes

  • A feeling of discontent developed among the Indian sepoys
  • There was no promotion for Indian soldiers were insulted very badly
  • General service Enlistment act (1856) ordering all recruits to be ready for service both within and outside India.
  • The greased cartridges supplied for the new Enfield Rifles was the immediate cause for the mutiny. Cartridges had to be bitten off before loading.
  • Believing that the fat of Cow and Pig had been used to grease these cartridges.
  • Both Hindus and Muslims refused to use him.
  • The cow is sacred to the Hindus and pig is detestable to the Muslims.

2. Enumerate the causes for the failure of The Great Revolt of 1857.

Causes for the failure of the revolt:-

  • Disunity among the Indians.
  • The revolt was not widespread among the people.
  • A large number of rulers did not join the movement.
  • The rulers of the Indians states remained neutral.
  • The educated Indians did not support the movement in general.
  • The possessions of Telegraph and Postal proved very helpful to the British.
  • The rebellious soldiers were short of modern weapons.
  • The Indian leaders were no match to the British generals.
  • The revolt broke out prematurely.
  • The Revolutionaries had no common idea.
  • The British “Divide and Rule” prevented Indian rulers to join together for a common cause.

3. Mention the results of the Great Revolt of 1857.

Results of the Revolt:-

  • It put an end to the company’s rule in India in 1858.
  • The administration of India was directly taken over by the British crown.
  • Board of Control and the Court of Directors were abolished and the Secretary of State for India was created.
  • Full religious freedom was guaranteed to Indians.
  • Indians were also given assurance of high posts without any discrimination.
  • The Indian army was thoroughly re-organized.

The Queen Victoria’s proclamation

  • A Royal Durbar was held at Allahabad, in November 1, 1858. The proclamation issued by Queen Victoria.
  • It was read by lord canning
  • It is described as the “Magna Carta”.
  • It confirmed the earlier treaties.
  • It promised to pay due regard customs of India.
  • Granted general pardon to all offenders except the murder of the British subjects.
  • The revolt aroused national feelings and it served as a source of inspiration for freedom in 1947.
10th History

THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION

I. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

1. The UNO was established in 1945

2. The UN charter was signed at San Francisco

3. UN’s main deliberative body is The General Assembly

4. The Seat of International Court of Justice is at The Hague

5. The United Nations celebrated its 50th Anniversary in 1995

II. Match the following:

1. New York  Head Quarters of UNO
2. Veto  Negative vote
3. Present Secretary General of UNO Antonio Guderres (from 13th Oct, 2016)
4. NTBT  1963
5. CTBT  1996

III. Answer the following in brief

1. What are the main objectives of the UNO?

The main objectives of the UNO

  • To maintain international peace and security.
  • To develop friendly relations among nations.
  • To settle international disputes by peaceful means.
  • To be a Centre for helping nations to achieve these goals.

2. Write a brief note on Security Council.

Note on Security Council

  • The Council has five Permanent members- The USA, the UK, France, Russian and China and ten non-permanent members.
  • The Permanent members have the right to veto (Negative vote).
  • Its main responsibility is to maintain international Peace and Security.

3. Mention any two major achievements of the UNO.

Two major achievements of the UNO

  • The UNO has solved many international disputes through peaceful negotiations.
  • It settled disputes between Israel and Palestine, and withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan.
  • It has signed many Nuclear Test ban treaties like NTBT in 1963 and CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty) in 1996.

4. Describe the 50th Anniversary Celebration of the UNO.

The 50th Anniversary Celebration of the UNO

  • In 1995 the United Nations celebrated its 50th Anniversary.
  • The theme was “We The People of the United Nations United for a Better World”.
  • In November 1995 the UN flag was carried into outer space to salute United Nations work.

5. Mention some of the specialized agencies of the UNO.

IV. Headings:

1. ORGANS OF THE UNO

[a] Name the major organs of the UNO.

The General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, the Secretariat.

[b] Who was elected as the President of the UN General Assembly in 1953?

Mrs. Vijayalakshmi Pandit was elected as the President of the General Assembly in 1953.

[c] What is the function of the Trusteeship Council?

The Trusteeship Council looks after certain Territories placed under the Trusteeship of the UNO.

[d] How is the Secretary General of the UNO appointed?

The Secretary General is the Chief Administrative Officer of the UNO. He is appointed by the General Assembly on the advice of the Security Council for a period of five years.

2. MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE UNO

[a] Name the treaties signed by the UNO.

Nuclear Test Ban Treaties (NTBT) in 1963 and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 1996.

[b] Where was the UN Conference on Environment and Development held?

In the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.

[c] What was adopted by all the countries?

“Agenda 21”.

[d] How did UNO tackle Suez Canal crisis?

The UNO played a vital role in the Suez Canal Crisis of 1956, it made France, Britain, and Israel to withdraw troops from Egypt.

V. DETAIL:

1. Explain the functions of the organs of the UNO.

The General Assembly:-

  • It is deliberative body. It has the right to discuss on all matters.
  • It consists of representatives of all member countries and five members with one vote.

The Security Council:-

  • The Council has five Permanent members-The USA, the UK, France and the Russian Federation and China and ten non-permanent members.
  • The Permanent members have the right to veto (Negative vote).
  • Its main responsibility is to maintain international Peace and Security.

The Economic and Social Council:-

  • It consists of 54 members.
  • It Co-ordinates the economic and social work of the United Nations and the speacialized Agencies.

The Trusteeship Council:-

  • The Trusteeship Council looks after certain Territories placed under the Trusteeship of the UNO.

International Court of Justice:-

  • It is located at The Hague. It consists of 15 Judges,
  • It acts as an advisory body for the General Assembly, Security Council and other organs of the UNO.

The Secretariat:-

  • The UN Secretariat carries out the day to day works of the organization.
  • The Secretary General is appointed by the General Assembly on the advice of the Security Council for a period of vie years.
  • The present Secretary General is Mr. Antonio Guderres (from 13th Oct, 2016) former Prime Minister of Portugal.

3. What are the major achievements of the UNO?

The major achievements of the UNO

  • UNO has rendered a great service in establishing peace and security by solving various problems.
  • The UNO has solved international disputes through peaceful negotiations.
  • It settled disputes between Israel and Palestine, and withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan.
  • It has signed many Nuclear Test Ban treaties like NTBT in 1963 and CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty) in 1996.
  • UNIFEM and INSTRAW to improve the quality of life for women.
  • The UNO played a vital role in the Suez Canal crisis of 1956.
  • The UNO also settled the Korean War and Vietnam War.
10th History

Second World War A.D. 1939 – A.D. 1945

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. This treaty contained the seeds of the Second World War. Treaty of Versailles

2. The coal mines given to France were Saar

3. The country emerged as a world power after the First World War was Japan

4. The principles of war and conquests was glorified by Dictators

5. In September 1938 Hitler threatened a war on Czechoslovakia

6. Hitler demanded the surrender of Danzig

7. Blitzkrieg means a Lightning war

8. The British Prime Minister during the Second World war was Sir Winston Churchill

9. Hitler signed the Non-Aggression Pact with Stalin

II. Match the following

1. Scorched Earth Policy  Russia
2. “U” Boats  German Submarines
3. Luftwaffe  Germany
4. Royal Air Force  England
5. Atlantic Charter  F.D. Roosevelt

III. Answer the following in brief:

1. How do you say that Spirit of Nationalism is one of the causes for the Second World War?

  • The concepts like Germany for Germans, Italy for Italians which emphasized nationalism.
  • Germany boosted the superiority of German race on the earth.

2. How did Japan sow the seeds for Second World War?

Japan sow the seeds for Second World War

  • Japan emerged as a World power after the First World War.
  • The industrial development and economic growth forced Japan to follow the policy of imperialism.
  • It signed Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis.

3. Has Munich Pact brought peace for some time? How?

  • Yes, the Munich agreement brought peace for six months
  • The pact was signed between Germany and Britain, Hitler was permitted to use Sudetenland and not to annex Czechoslovakia, and he followed for six month and violated it by annexing the
  • Czechoslovakia.

4. What was the immediate cause of the Second World War?

The immediate cause of the Second World War

  • In 1939, Hitler demanded from Poland the right to construct a military road connecting East Prussia and demanded the surrender of Danzig.
  • When Poland refused, Hitler made a lightening attack on Poland known as Blitzkrieg on 1, September 1939.

5. Write a note on the Scorched Earth Policy.

The Scorched Earth Policy

  • On June 22, 1941, Hitler invaded Russia, stalled the German (army) at the gates of Moscow.
  • Stalin has planned to evacuate the city, decided to stay and rally the city.
  • Russians followed the Scorched Earth Policy, set fire to crops, roads, railways, factories and even houses.
  • Germans could not gain anything.
  • Germans were able to capture the empty city of Moscow.
  • Germans retreated in January, 1944.

6. Write a note on Battle of Britain.

Battle of Britain

  • Hitler turned his attention to Britain.
  • His “U” boats (Sub marines) and Luftwaffe (Air force) continuously bombed London and torpedoed many British ships in 1940.
  • This is called the Battle of Britain.
  • British suffered heavy losses at first but turned the air strike against Germany.

7. Why did America declare war on Japan?

America declare war on Japan

  • The Japanese had attacked American fleet stationed at Pearl Harbour on December 7, 1941.
  • This attack forced the Americans to enter into the war. The very next day the USA declared war on Japan.

IV. Answer all the questions given under each caption

1. CAUSES OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR

[a] Name the treaty signed by Japan, Italy and Germany.

Rome- Berlin-Tokyo axis.

[b] Mention some of the ideologies that emerged after the First World war.

After the First World War, the World was witnessed the rise of new ideologies such as Democracy, Communism, Fascism and Nazism.

[c] What was the policy followed by the Statesmen of the major world powers?

Policy of Appeasement.

[d] What did Hitler preach?

Germany Nationalist party (Nazi) party, preached a racist brand of Nazism.

2. OPERATOIN BARBARESSA

[a] Mention the year of operation Barbaressa.

In 1941.

[b] What was the wish of Hitler?

Hitler despised communism and wished to destroy in the land of its birth.

[c] What did he order?

Hitler ordered a large attack on the Yugoslavia and Greek.

[d] When did the Axis countries bring the Balkans under their control?

By the End of April.

3. END OF THE WAR

[a] Where did a big American and British force land?

Normandy.

[b] With whom did they join?

They were joined by the secret underground French forces.

[c] What did Hitler do?

He committed suicide.

[d] When did America drop atom bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

America dropped atom bombs on the cities of Hiroshima on August 6, and Nagasaki on August 9, 1945.

4. RESULTS OF THE WAR

[a] Who occupied Japan?

Japan was occupied by American forces under General Mc. Arthur.

[b] Name the two super powers that emerged after the Second World war.

America and Russia emerged as Super Powers.

[c] Mention some of the countries which got independence after the war.

India, Burma, Egypt, Ceylon and Malaya fought for their freedom and won their freedom from Britain, Philippines from America. Indo-China from France and Indonesia from the Dutch got their independence.

[d] Why was UNO set up?

The United Nations Organization was set up to maintain International cooperation and for the promotion human welfare.

V. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. Write any five causes for the outbreak of Second World War.

Causes for the Second World War:-

Treaty of Versailles:-

  • Germany was levied a huge war indemnity.
  • The rich Saar coal mine was given to France for 15 years.
  • Her army was reduced.
  • All these humiliating terms against Germany resulted in the Second World War.

Spirit of Nationalism:-

The concepts like Germany for Germans, Italy for Italians which led to tension. Germany boosted the superiority of German race.

Failure of League of Nations:-

League of Nations failed in future and to maintain international peace and security.

Rise of Japan:-

Japan emerged as a World power after the First World War. It signed Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis. It sowed the seeds for Second World War.

Rise of Dictatorship:-

The rise of new ideologies such as Democracy, Communism, Fascism and Nazism which glorified the principles of the war.

Immediate Cause:-

  • In 1939, Hitler demanded from Poland the right to construct a military road connecting East Prussia and also demanded the surrender of Danzig.
  • When Poland refused, Hitler made a lightening attack on Poland known as Blitzkrieg on 1, September 1939.

2. Write a paragraph on Soviet attack and the Battle of Britain.

The Battle of Britain 1940:-

  • Hitler turned his attention to Britain.
  • His “U” boast (Sub marines) and Luftwaffe (Air force) continuously bombed London and torpedoed many British ships in 1940.
  • This is called the Battle of Britain.
  • British suffered heavy losses at first but turned the air strike against Germany.

Scorched Earth Policy:-

  • On June 22, 1941 Hitler invaded Russia, stalled the German (army) at the gates of Moscow.
  • Stalin had planned to evacuate the city, decided to stay and rally the city.
  • Germans could not gain anything.
  • Germans were able to capture the empty city of Moscow.
  • Germans retreated in January, 1944.

3. What were the results of the Second World War?

Results of the war:-

  • The destruction to life and property was on a much larger.
  • Over 50 Million were lost their lives.
  • It sounded the death knell to dictatorship in Germany and Italy.
  • Germany was divided into two:-
  • West Germany controlled by Britain, France, and America.
  • East Germany controlled by Russia.
  • At the end of the war Japan was occupied by American forces under General Mc Arthur.
  • America and Russia emerged as Super powers.
  • A cold war started between Russian and America.
  • India, Burma, Egypt, Ceylon and Malaya fought for their freedom and won their freedom from Britain.
  • The European countries gave up the policy of Colonialism and Imperialism.
  • The United Nations Organisation was set up to maintain international peace and harmony.
10th History

NAZISM IN GERMANY A.D. 1933 – A.D.1945

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. A democratic constitution with the federal structure was established by a National Assembly met at Weimer

2. The Allied armies occupied the resources in Rhineland

3. Hitler’s anti-Semitism grew to the extent of killing the Jews

4. For some time Hitler was a Painter

5. In 1941, Hitler invaded Russia

6. The Allies were strengthened by the entry of America

II. Match the following

1. Brown shirts 1925  Followers of Hitler
2. Fuhrer  Leader
3. Swastika  Nazi Emblem
4. Gestapo  Hitler’s Secret Police
5. Mein Kampf  My struggle

III. Answer the following in brief

1. What did Hitler declare?

Hitler declared,

“One People”

“One State”

“One Leader”

2. What did he do in 1923? What was the result?

  • Hitler made an attempt to capture power in 1923.
  • It was known as “Beer Hall Revolution”.
  • He failed was arrested put in jail for 5 years.
  • When he was in prison he wrote a book called “Mein Kampf” (My Struggle).

3. How did Hitler become a chancellor of Germany?

Hitler become a chancellor of Germany

  • In the election of 1932, the Nazi party became the 2nd largest group in the German Parliament.
  • Hitler became the Chancellor and Hindenburg as President.
  • On the death of President Hindenburg in August 1934, Hitler made himself President and Chancellor.

4. Write a brief note on Munich Agreement.

Munich Agreement

  • Hitler went on seeking Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia.
  • An agreement was signed between Germany and Neville Chamberlain, at Munich in 1938.
  • By the Munich pact Germany was allowed to annex the Sudetenland but not to conquer any more territories.
  • In 1939, Hitler violated the Munich agreement annexed whole Czechoslovakia.

5. How did Hitler maintain the policy of the Nordic race?

Hitler maintain the policy of the Nordic race

Hitler boasted about the superiority of the Nordic race and stood for the rise of all the great culture.

He wanted to maintain a German race with Nordic elements.

IV. Answer all the questions given under each caption.

1. ADOLF HITLER

[a] Where was Adolf Hitler born?

Austria in 1839

[b] What was his father?

Custom officer

[c] What did he organize?

He organized the group of men called the national socialist in 1999, he gave his group a program a symbol

[d] Name the book written by Hitler.

Mein Kampf (My struggle)

2. HITLER’s AGGRESSIVE POLICY

[a] Why did Hitler conquer territories?

To accommodate the growing population and to accumulate resources.

[b] How did he violate the Locarno Treaty of 1925?

He reoccupied Rhine land and violated the Locarno Treaty of 1925.

[c] What did he demand from Poland?

To construct a military road and also the surrender of Danzig.

[d] When did he declare war on Poland?

1st September 1939.

V. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. How did Hitler establish Nazi rule in Germany?

Hitler establish Nazi rule in Germany

  • Hitler made an attempt to capture power in 1923,
  • It was known as “Beer Hall Revolution”.
  • He failed and was arrested put in jail for 5 years.
  • When he was in prison he wrote a book called “Mein Kampf” (My Struggle).
  • In the election of 1932, the Nazi party became the 2nd largest group in the German Parliament.
  • Hitler became the Chancellor and Hindenburg as President.
  • On the death of President Hindenburg in August 1934, Hitler made himself President and Chancellor.

2. Explain Hitler’s aggressive policy.

Hitler’s Aggressive policy:-

  • He pulled Germany out of the League of Nations in 1933.
  • In 1936, he reoccupied Rhine land, and violated the Locarno Treaty of 1925.
  • In November 1937 Hitler formed Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis.
  • In 1939, Hitler violated the Munich Agreement by annexing the whole of Czechoslovakia.
  • Hitler demanded Poland right to construct a military road and also the surrender of Danzig.
  • In 1941, Hitler invaded Russia, breaking the Non-aggression pact with Stalin.
  • Hitler committed suicide in his Bunker.
10th History

FASCISM IN ITALY .A.D. 1922 – A.D. 1945

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The founder of the Fascist Party was Benito Mussolini

2. Mussolini organized the National Fascist Party in November 1921

3. Mussolini provided Stable government

4. The great relief was provided to the workers by Charter of Labour

5. Mussolini made common cause with Hitler

6. Mussolini left the League of Nations in 1937

II. Match the following:

1. Duce  Mussolini
2. Black Shirts  Mussolini’s followers
3. Ovra  Secret Police of Mussolini
4. March on Rome  1922
5. Albania  1939

III. Answer the following in brief:

1. What does the term “Fascism” mean?

The term “Fascism” is derived from the Latin word “Fasces” means a bundle or group.

2. What were the four pillars of Fascism?

The four pillars of Fascism

* Charismatic leadership

* Single party rule

* Terror and

* Economic control.

3. Trace the reasons for the rise of Fascism.

The prevailing economic, social and political conditions were very favourable to the rise of fascism in Italy.

4. How did Mussolini seize power?

  • On October 30, 1922, the Fascists organized a march to Rome and showed their strength.
  • Emperor Victor Emanuel III invited Mussolini to form the Government.
  • The Fascists seized power without bloodshed.

5. Write any two achievements of Mussolini.

Two achievements of Mussolini

  • He provided a stable government.
  • Mussolini brought order and discipline in the industrial field.
  • The “Charter of Labour” issued by him provided great relief to workers”.
  • Marshes were drained. Canals were dug.

6. How did he put an end to the conflict between the Pope and King?

  • The ongoing 60 years conflicts between Papacy and the Italian government came to an end by the Later Treaty of 1929, signed between the Pope and the Mussolini.
  • Mussolini recognized the Pope in the Vatican City in turn the Pope recognized the king in Rome.

IV. Answer all the questions given under each Caption:

1. FASCIST PARTY

[a] Who was the founder of Fascist party?

Benito Mussolini

[b] Give the slogans of Mussolini.

“Believe, obey, fight and the more force, the more honour”.

[c] What were the aims of Fascism?

“Exaltation of the state, protection of private property, spirited foreign policy”

[d] What was the motto of Fascism?

“Everything within the state, nothing against the state, nothing outside the state”

2. ACHIEVEMENTS OF FASCISM

[a] What did Mussolini bring in the industrial field?

The charter of labour

[b] What do you know about the “Charter of Labour”?

“The charter of labour” issued by him provided great relief to workers. Industries were freed from the strike epidemic.

[c] What were the measures taken by Mussolini in the agricultural field?

Mussolini took several measures to increase the production. Marshes were drained, canals were dug.

[d] When was Lateran Treaty signed?

In 1929

3. AGGRESSIVE FOREIGN POLICY OF MUSSOLINI

[a] What was Mussolini’s slogan before the Nation?

“Italy must expand or perish”

[b] When did he capture Albania?

In 1939

[c] Name the island bombarded by the Allied Forces.

Sicily

[d] What was the end of Mussolini?

Mussolini was shot dead by his own countrymen in 1945.

V. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. What were the achievements of Fascism under Mussolini?

The achievements of Fascism under Mussolini

  • He provided a stable government.
  • Mussolini brought order and discipline in the industrial field.
  • The “Charter of Labour” issued by him provided great relief to workers.
  • Marshes were drained & Canals were dug.
  • The ongoing 60 years conflicts between Papacy and the Italian government came to an end by the Latern Treaty of 1929, signed between the Pope and the Mussolini.
  • Mussolini recognized the pope in the Vatican city, in turn the Pope recognized the king in Rome.

2. Write a paragraph on Mussolini’s aggressive foreign policy.

Aggressive foreign policy that ends in disaster:-

  • Mussolini’s slogan before the nation was “Italy must expand or perish”.
  • In 1936, he annexed Ethiopia.
  • He left the League of Nations in 1937.
  • He captured Albania in 1939.
  • He joined the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis.
  • Mussolini began to follow vigorous and forward foreign policy.
  • He was determined to raise the prestige of Italy.