9th Geography

CONVERSATION OF RESOURCES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. In Tamil Nadu soil erosion by Wind is very common in kambam valley.

2. For constant supply of forest product in a region at least one third of the area should be under forest.

3. Seasonal shearing of fur of animal in capacity is conservation.

4. Protecting animals in their in their habitat is in preservation

5. Garganey, Teals and Shovallers are migratory birds.

II. Match the following

1. Gulf of mannar Marine sanctuary
2. Point Calimere ` Bird sanctuary
3. Agastiyamalai Biosphere reserve
4. Mudumalai Elephant reserve
5. Mundanthurai Tiger reserve
9th Geography

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The surrounding in which organisms live and interact is called Environment.

2. The process of clearing the forests by human is called as Deforestation.

3. The process by which eco system species become extinct is Loss of biodiversity.

4. The excessive use of artificial fertilizer greatly reduces the quality of soil.

II. Match the following:

1. Global warming -CO2

2. Deforestation -Coastal flooding

3. Automobile -air pollution

4. Water pollution -pesticides

5. Urbanisation -unauthorized encroachments

III.ANSWER IN BRIEF:

1. What are the major environmental issues?

  • Urbanization
  • Deforestation
  • Environmental pollution
  • Global warming

2. What is global warming?

Global warming is defined as an increase in the atmospheric temperature near the earth surface due to rise in carbon dioxide levels and green house effects.

3. What is Deforestation?

Deforestation simply means cutting down a tree.

It has seriously affected the quality of environment by increasing the temperature, decreasing rainfall, top soil erosion, flash flood.

4. Name some of green house effect?

Carbon-di-oxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide and Chloro-fluoro-carbon.

5. What is pollution?

Substances released into an environment that cause harm to living organism and built up structures are called pollution.

6. What is urbanization?

It refers to increasing inhabitants of people with non agricultural occupation with a higher population density than the surrounding regions.

7. What are the main threats to biodiversity?

Uncontrolled commercial exploitation of natural resources like forest, coastal areas, wet lands.

8. What are the sources of land pollution?

Land pollution is the contamination of land by solid wastes.

IV. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING:

1. What are the effects of the global warming?

Heat waves and fluctuating weather causes diseases and warming up of Antarctic and Arctic ocean.

Sea level rise coastal flooding due to glaciers melting coral reefs bleaching due to the change in the ecosystem frequent drought fire and heavy snowfall.

2. What is the main objectives of the biosphere reserves?

The main objectives of the reserves is to conserve the genetic diversity of species and to restore degraded ecosystems to their natural and original conditions.

To protect the biosphere, biosphere reserves have been set up in the Nilgiris and Gulf of Mannar.

3. Mention the areas of water pollution in Tamil Nadu and what steps have been taken by the government to stop it?

  • The indiscriminate discharge from textile bleaching and dyeing units in and around Tiruppur, Erode and Karur areas have caused polluting the river system of Noyyil and Amaravathi
  • Effluents from tanneries for land quality deterioration in the river palar basin of Vellore district
  • Most towns located along the banks of major rivers causes sewage pollution.
  • The Kaveri river receives sewage from eleven towns, Palar from six towns, Vaigai from five towns and Tamirabarani from three towns.
9th Geography

TAMIL NADU – POPULATION

I. Choose the best answer

1. Kanyakumari has the highest percent of literate in the state.

2. The district which has the lowest density population is Sivagangai.

3. Population in Tamil Nadu has doubled over a period of fifty years from 1951 to 2001.

4. Mountainous region with steep slopes and forest covers supports small population.

II. Match the following

1. The annual growth rate – 1.1%

2. Rural population – 56%

3. Literacy percentage in Tamil Nadu – 73.5%

4. Hindus – 88%

5. Urban population – 44%

III. BRIEF

1. What are the factors that influence the distribution of population?

  • Plains with suitable climate support a huge population.
  • Coastal plains with mild temperatures and good opportunities for economic activities support huge population.
  • Job opportunities in large towns and cities attract both literates as well as illiterates.
  • Dry regions generally support a small population.

2. What are self help groups?

A self Help Group is a group of women, organized for eradication of poverty. They agree to save regularly and convert their savings into a common fund.

3. Give reasons for considering people as reasons.

People are considered as resources because of their ability to change available natural resources into value added products

4. What is birth rate?

BIRTH RATE:

The crude birth rate is the annual number of live births per 1000 people.

5. What are the aims of human resources of human resources management?

It aims at developing person qualities in an individual so that he or she may contribute in a healthier manner for the national and world peace.

6. List the qualities to be developed to be developed by each individual by each individual to live and let others live peacefully.

  • Education
  • Health care
  • Creativity
  • Decision making.

V. ANSWER IN DETAIL

1. Write about the strategies adopted by the government of Tamil Nadu for women empowerment.

Women empowerment includes

  • Women’s senses of self worth;
  • Right to seek and decide upon choices;
  • Right to have access to opportunities and resources;
  • Right to have control on their lives, both within and outside of their homes.

2. Describe about the distribution of population in Tamil Nadu?

Chennai possesses the largest share of 6.96% of the total population of Tamil Nadu.

This is followed by Coimbatore, Vellore and Salem districts.

Perambalur has the least population of 0.069%.

9th Geography

TAMIL NADU – TRADE

I. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

1. Primitive method of trade was known as barter system.

2. Trade decides the economic growth of a country.

3. In Tamil Nadu domestic trade is effectively handled between districts.

4. Virudhunagar district exports crackers.

II. MATCH THE FOLLOWING:

1. Exports Software
2. Imports Machinery
3. Tidel park Chennai
4. Tansilk Kanchipuram
5. First uzhvar sandhai Madhurai

III. BRIEF:

1. Define Trade?

An Exchange of Goods and commodities either within the country or between the countries.

2. Name some of the imports of Tamilnadu?

  • Mineral fuel and mineral oil.
  • Organic chemicals.
  • Plastic articles.

3. Distinguish between Import and Export?

EXPORT IMPORT
Export refer to goods and services sold for foreign currency. Imports are goods and services bought from overseas producers.
Ex.Textile goods, drugs and pharmaceuticals, chemicals Ex. Organic chemicals, plastics articles

4. Differentiate internal from international trade.

Internal trade:

Trade carried on within the domestic territory of a country is termed as internal trade

International trade:

Trade between two or more than two countries is termed as international trade.

IV. PARAGRAPH:

1. Why trade is called an engine of growth?

  • It helps in the flow of commodities.
  • It generates dynamic change in the export front.
  • Trade increases technology transfer from one country to another.
  • It improves the welfare of the workers.
  • It helps to increase the total production of a country.

2. Write a paragraph about UZHAVAR SANDHAI?

  • This scheme was initiated for direct selling of fruits & vegetables at fair price.
  • First Uzhavar sandhai was started at Madurai in 1999.
  • There are 103 Uzhavar sandhais in the state.
  • Every day on an average 1609 MT of fruits and vegetables worth of 191.77 lakhs are sold.
  • Consumers were benefitted through uzhavar sandhai.
9th Geography

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

I. CHOOSE IT

1. During industrial revolution production became faster

2. England is birth place of the industrial revolution.

3. Great Britain is an Island

4. Cotton Gin was invented by Eli Whitney

5. In 1830 the first passenger railway was operated

II. MATCH IT

1. John kay – Flying shuttle

2. James watt – New steam engine

3. Faraday – Dynamo

4. Macadam – Road

5. Humphrey davy – safety lamp

III. HEADINGS

1. Textile industry

a) What was the first momentum from the outburst of invention?

Cotton textile industries

b) By whom flying shuttle wass invented?

John kay

c) Who invented sewing machine?

Elias howe

d) When was cotton gin invented?

1793

2. Invention in powers

a) Who invented a new steam engine in 1769?

James watt

b) By whom safety lamp was invented?

Humphrey davis

c) What did bersemer invented in 1855?

Method of making steel

d) Who introduced the pudding process for the purification of pig iron?

Henry cort

IV. BRIEF:

1. What is meant by Industrial revolution?

It refers to shift from an agrarian, handicraft, labour intensive economy into one dominated by machine manufacturers factories and a free flow of capital.

2. What were the result of the expansion of commerce?

Foundation for the rapid expansion of trade.

Encourage the scientists to invent machines. Gave birth to capitalism.The people produced goods on large scale.

3. Write a note on Revolution in agriculture?

The new farm machinery included the steel plough and harrow. Machines for reaping and threshing.

The practice of crop rotation was adopted to maintain soil fertility.

4. What is the motive behind Socialism?

The motive behind socialism is that there should be just distribution of wealth.The gap between the rich and the poor.

5. Who was Karl Marx? What was his theory?

Karl Marx is a socialist of Germany.

His theory is based on the assumption that production and physical forces have an intimate relationship and the surplus value of products should go in favor of the working class.

V. ANSWER IN PARAGRAPH:

1. What were the causes for industrial revolution?

  • The term industrial revolution refers to the shift from an agrarian handicraft, labor intensive economic into one dominated by machine manufacture factors and the free flow of capital.Innovation in agricultural methods
  • The traditional patterns of agriculture were breaking up.
  • Agriculture becomes more and more capitalist enterprise.
  • The demand for English goods went on increasing.
  • Discoveries of new lands and new sea routes
  • More efficient agriculture and better food distribution.
  • The progress of science revolutionized the method of production.

2. What were the effects of Industrial Revolution?

The changes in agricultural production, business organization and technology.Pollution affected the health of people.

The industrial found more profitable to employ woman and children in the factories.

The society create two distinct classes, they are Capitalist and laborers.

THE POLITICAL EFFECTS:

The factory acts passed in1819, 1933 and 1847to improve the conditions of laborers.

In 1825 trade unions were organized to fight for their rights.

ECONOMICAL EFFECTS:

The establishments of factories like Manchester, Lancashire, Birmingham and Sheffield.

The Industrial Revolution made the “rich richer and poor poorer”

3. Mention some important scientific inventions were made during industrial Revolution.

INDUSTRY NAME INVENTION YEAR
1. TEXTILE John Kay Eli Whitney Flying Shuttle Cotton Gin 1773 1793
2. STEAM James Watt     Faraday Redesigned Newcomen’s steam engine Dynamo 1769     1831
3. IRON AND STEEL John Seaton   Humphrey Davis Improved Derby process Safety lamp 1760   1860
4.TRANSPORT John Macadam Macadamized roads  
9th Geography

TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS

I. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

1. Postal and telegraph services belongs to personal communication.

2. Transport system acts as arteries and veins for national Development.

3 .The east coast road is built along the coast of Bay of Bengal.

4. The largest terrestrial network in the world is Doordharshan.

5. Minor ports are known as Anchorage ports.

II. MATCH THE FOLLOWING:

1.Golden quadrilateral – national highways

2.Cuddalore –minor port

3.GPS – location of place

4.Magazine –print media

5.Uninor –private telecom

III. ANSWER IN BRIEF:

1. Name the different types of roads found in Tamilnadu.

Roadways may be classified into four types. They are

  1. National highways
  2. State highways
  3. District roads and
  4. Village roads

2. Name some of the private telecom services

The private, basic telecom services are bharathi Infotel, TATA, reliance, Airtel, Aircel, Vodafone, Uninor

3. Name the three ports of Tamilnadu.

The three major ports of Tamilnadu are

  1. Chennai
  2. Tuticorin
  3. Ennore

4. What are the two types of communication. Give example

Personal communication and Mass communication

Ex: telegram, telephone, internets, email and fax

Print media

Ex: books, journals, magazines and newspapers

Electronic media

Ex: telecommunications, mobile phone etc.

5. What are minor ports? Give example.

Minor ports are anchorage ports where cargo is transshipped from the vessel to the shore.

Cuddalore, Nagapattinam, Kolachal and Rameswaram

6.Name the major international airports of Tamil Nadu.

The major international airports are

Chennai

Coimbatore

Tiruchirapalli

7. Expand STD

Subscriber Trunk Dialing

8. Distinguish between internet and intranet

INTERNET:

The internet can be accessed by each and every individual from any part of the world.

INTRANET:

An intranet is a private computer network that can only be accessed within a company through their internal network.

IV.GIVE PARAGRAPH ANSWER:

1. Account the advantages of communication technology.

It plays a vital part not only in personal life but also important role in business and education through satellites.

People can send and receive mails using e-mails to get information.

Shopping via internet is trend nowadays.

Online payment of phone bills, electricity bills and ticket booking can also be done.

Communication technology has also developed that even remote villages

Ex: GPRS and GPS

2. What are the recent prospective development made in road transport

Conversion of single lane of State Highways into double lane and multilane.

The widening and improvement of road is referred as IT Expressway that serves as connectivity to all IT companies.

The East Coast Road(ECR) that is built along Chennai and Cuddalore via Pondicherry.

Golden Quadrilateral Project in Tamil Nadu has been completed.

Most of the mofussil traffic have been diverted on to the bye pass roads to avoid traffic.

9th Geography

AGRICULTURE

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Tea, coffee, rubber, pepper and cashew are plantation crops

2.  Agriculture is the primary traditional occupation

3.  Dry farming type of farming is known as manavari in Tamil Nadu.

4.  Well type of irrigation is most pre dominate irrigation system in Tamil Nadu

5. Tamil Nadu rice research institute is in aduthurai

II. MATCH THE FOLLOWING:

1. Rearing of birds- poultry

2. Rearing of silk worms-sericulture

3. Rearing of honey bees- apiculture

4. Growing fruits-horticulture

5. thuthukudi –leading port in fish export

III. ANSWER IN BRIEF:

1. what do you mean by subsistence intensive farming?

  • Farming that is carried on small land holdings that produces food crops for local consumption and not for external trade is known as subsistence intensive farming.
  • Most farmers in Tamil Nadu practice subsistence intensive farming.

2. Write short note on a) mixed farming b) plantation farming c) market gardening

A) Mixed Farming

Mixed farming is one where in land allotted for more than one activity along with agriculture

B) Plantation Farming

Plantation farming is yet another type of farming where crops are grown on large farms or estate.

C) Market Gardening

Market gardening includes horticulture and floriculture they are grown on the large scale and supplied to the urban market for export purposes.

3. Name the factors influencing agriculture

The factors influencing agriculture may be classified as physical, social and economic factors

The physical factors include soil, temperature, rainfall, humidity, climate and slopes of land.

The social factors include traditional, knowledge, belief, and myths of farmers, farm size and holdings and farmers acceptance towards innovation.

4. Bring out the significance of Kallanai in Tamil Nadu

Kallanai built around first century by Karikalan is still in use.

It is considered to be the oldest water regulatory structure in the world.

The grand anaicut build across the river kaveri near thiruchirapalli diverts the water to the entire delta region through canals.

5. Difference between wet farming and dry farming.

Wet farming Dry farming
Water supply is available throughout the year from rainfall for irrigation Farming is carried out only during rainy season without irrigation.
Rice and sugarcane are grown Ragi and millets are grown
Most river basins Tamil Nadu practice this type of farming Drier region of Vellore Thiruvannamalai, Ramanadhapuram, Thirunelveli practice this type of farming.

6. Difference between marine fishing and deep sea fishing

Marine fishing Inland fishing
It is carried out in the oceans and seas It is carried out in lakes rivers, ponds, estuaries, back waters and swamps.
Large mechanized boats are used for fish catching. Catamaran, diesel boats, floating net cages are used.
Fish varieties are sharks, flying fish, counch, cat fish, silver bellies and crabs. Fish varieties are catla, rogue, mirkal, eel and calabaashu.

IV. ANSWER IN PARAGRAPH:

1. Describe the cropping seasons of Tamil Nadu.

Cropping seasons of Tamil Nadu can be grouped as sornavari, samba, navarai.

A) Sornavari is the otherwise known as kharif season.

  • The seeds are sown during may and harvested in October.
  • The month of may coincide with tamil month chitthirai.
  • It is also known as chitthirai pattam.

B) Samba is otherewise known as summer season

  • The seeds are sown in the month of july which coincides with
  • The month of aadi.
  • It is harvested in January.
  • This season is reffered to as aadi pattam in Tamil Nadu.

C) Navarai seeds are sown in the month of November.

  • It is harvested in march.
  • This season is nowmn as karthigai pattam
  • The tamil month kathigai coincides with month of November.

2. Write a paragraph about inland fishing.

  • Fishing carried out in lakes, rivers, ponds,estuaries,back waters and swamps is called inland fishing.
  • Catamaran (small wooden boats) , diesel boats, and floAting net cages are used.
  • Fish varieties are catla, rogue, mirkal, eel, and calabaashu.
  • The state has three hectares of inland water,63000 hectares of estuaries, back waters and the swamps.
  • Oysters and prawns are cultured inorganized nurseries ennore and pulicat lake for export.
  • The estimated inland fish production for the year 2007 to 2008 was 164,504 tonnes.
  • The vellore district ranks first among the districts with 10% of inland fishing production of the state.
  • Cudallore, sivagangai and virudhunagar stand second with 9% of inland fish catch.

3. Write about the changing trends in agriculture in Tamil Nadu

  • Tradition method of agriculture is slowly being replaced by scientific and technical methods.
  • Agricultural university in Coimbatore and MS. Swaminathan research foundation in Taramani, Chennai are actively involved in fusing traditional with modern methods.
  • A few recent agricultural innovative trends are MICRO irrigation, integrated pest control management(IPM) , growing blue green algae and azolla, precision forming through remote sensing, geographical information system and global positioning system.
  • Increase in organic matter will increase the water holding capacity of the soil.
  • This will support the microbial activity and hasten the nutrient absorption capacity of roots.

4. Mention the efforts taken by the government in improving agriculture in the state.

Efforts taken by government to improve agriculture are

  • The government supplies quality and certified seeds to the farmers.
  • The organic matter and micro nutrients are supplied at subsidized rate.
  • Free electricity is provided to small and marginal farmers for about 6 to 8 hours a day.
  • Government fixes the prices for agricultural products to safe guard the farmers from financial crisis.
  • Farmers market (uzhavar santhai) enhances the farmers to get better share of prices at same time consumers to get agricultural produce at affordable prices.
  • Crop insurance scheme has been introduced.
  • Government has set up agricultural export zones in nilgiris and krishnagiri
9th Geography

RESOURCES OF TAMIL NADU

I. CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER:

1. Which one of the following is not a factor of soil formation-inorganic matter

2. Biotic resources are those obtained from the –biosphere

3. Time determines thickness of soil profile

4. Medicinal herbs are commonly found on –palani hills

5. Which one of the following is a leading producer of lignite-Neyveli

6. Which one of the following is not a producer of iron ore-Thiruchirappali

II. MATCH THE FOLLOWING:

1. Mettur thermal power station –Perambalur

2. Wind energy -5500 MW2

3. Saline soil -Vedaranyam

4. Cinchona -Medicine

5. Solar power -Dharmapuri

III. ANSWER IN BRIEF :

1. Define resources?

  • The term resources refers to the natural wealth available on the earth surface for the welfare of mankind.
  • The resources have the three characteristics called utility, quantity, and consumption.

2. Define soil?

  • Soil is the loose material.
  • It forms the upper most layer of the earth.
  • It consist mainly of very small particles.

3. Which are the factors that determines formation of soil?

The factors that determine the formation of soil are

  • Parent rock.
  • Climate.
  • Relief.
  • Time factor.
  • Flora.
  • Fauna and
  • Micro-organism.

4. Define rain water harvesting?

  • Rain water harvesting is the process of collecting rain water from roof tops
  • It directed to an appropriate location
  • There it is stored for ground water recharge

5. What is national park?

An natural area designated to protect the ecological balance of one or more ecosystems for the present and future generation this refered to as national park

6. Name the Hydel power plants of Tamil Nadu

S. No Hydel Power Plant Rivers MW
1. Kundah(I to V) Bhavani 500
2. Mettur tunnel Kaveri 840
3. Aliyar Aliyar 60
4. Kodayar(1,2) Kodayar 100
5. Solaiyar(1,2) Sholayar 95
6. Kadamparai Kadampari 400
7. Lower mettur Kaveri 120
8. Papanasam hydro electric power Papnasam 32
9. Pykara Pykara 150
    Total 2297

7. Difference between conventional sources and non conventional.

Conventional sources Non conventional source
Conventional sources of energy have been traditionally used by mankind for a long time Non conventional power resources are known as renewable resources
It includes fossil fuels like coal and natural gas, oil and nuclear power Sun is the biggest source of non conventional energy sources

8. what are advantages and disadvantages of wind energy

Advantages of wind energy

It is a non polluting source

It involves low cost of production

Disadvantages of wind energy

It causes noise pollution

Wind mills are very costly to set up.

Disturbs radio and TV reception.

9. soil is nin renewable resources explain:

Soil is the non renewable resources which are formed over very long geological periods and are certain to be exhausted in the course of time.

Soil forming processes are controlled by the factors such as parent rock, climate,relief,time factor, flora fauna and microorganism present in a soil.

IV. ANSWER IN A PARAGRAPH :

1. Explain the different types of soil found in Tamil Nadu?

S. No Soil Districts
1. Alluvial soil Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Villupuram,Kuddalore
2. Regur or the Black soil Coimbatore, Madurai,Virudhunagar Thuthukudai, Thirunelveli
3. Red loam Sivagangai, Ramanadhapuram
4. Laterite soil Kancheepuram, Thiruvallur,Thanjavur hill tops of western and eastern ghats
5. Saline soil Predominately in Vedaranyam, Coromandle coast and for about 10 km in all the coastal districts of Tamil Nadu

2. What are the uses of forest:

  • Among the 3000 and more plant species are found in Tamil Nadu, majority of them are found in the mixed deciduous forest.
  • The most note worthly flower of kodaikannal is kurinji flower.
  • It blooms once in 12 years
  • Chincona, the forest product gives the medicine quineine to treat malaria
  • Palmyrah trees are grown abundantly in Thirunelveli district as subsidiary activity to agriculture.
  • Its products are used as raw material for cottagev industries.
  • Eucalyptus trees grown in Nilagiris are used as medicine for curring cold and as pain reliver.
  • Exotic varieties of sandal wood are grown in javadhi hills.
  • These forest contribute a lot to the economy of the stats.

3. Give an account to the mineral resources in the Tamil Nadu.

Minerals are classified in to three categories.

Minerals District
Iron ore Salem, Namakkal, And Thiruvannamalai
Copper Salem,Nilgiris, Coimbatore, Madurai
Bauxite Salem,Nilgiris, Coimbatore, Vellore Dharmapurai
Chromite Salem, Namakkal, Thiruchirappalli and Erode
Pyrite  Villupuram

Non Metallic Minerals Of Tamil Nadu

Minerals Districts
Lime stone Virudhunagar, Thuthukudi, Thirunelveli, Thiruchirappali, Salem
Mica T Hiruchirappali, Coimbatore and Ramanadhapuram,
Magnesite Salem, Namakkal, Erode and Coimbatore
Steatite Vellore, Cuddalore, Coimbatore, Salem, Thiruchirapalli
Salt Chennai, Thuthukudi, Cuddalore, Nagapattinam
Mineral fuels of Tamil Nadu  
Minerals Districts
Petroleum and lignite Thiruvarur(panamgdi) narimanam(kaveri delta region) neyveli

4. Give an account of thermal power resources of Tamil Nadu

Thermal power resources:

Power generated from non renewable energy resources such as coal, oil and natural gas is known as thermal power. Thermal power is produced by heating the water. The steam thus formed spins the turban to produce electricity.

Name of the plant District Types of fuel MW
Neyveli lignite corporation Cuddalore coal 2490
North Chennai thermal power unit 1 Thiruvallur coal 1200
Thuthukudi thermal power plant Thuthukudi coal 1000
Mettur thermal power station Salem coal 600
9th Geography

CLIMATE OF TAMIL NADU

I. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

1. Tamil Nadu has tropical climate

2. Tropical cyclones occur during the month of November

3. Teak and ebony belongs to tropical evergreen forest

4. Tamil Nadu receives moderate rainfall during south west monsoon season.

5. North east monsoon winds blow during October to November months.

6. Mangrove forest are found in vedaranyam.

7. The trees of deciduous forest shed their leaves during dry season.

II. MATCH THE FOLLOWING:

1. Evergreen forest – rosewood

2. Monsoon forest – shed the leaves

3. Hot season – march to june

4. Cold season – December to February

5. Timber – forest product

III. ANSWER IN BRIEF:

1. List out the geographical factors that influence the climate of Tamil Nadu?

Physiography, nearness to sea and geographical location determine the overall climate condition of any region.

Though Tamil Nadu lies in the tropical region, the local weather conditions such as temperature, humidity, clouds and wind direction and speed change the climate condition to a greater extent.

2. Name the seasons of Tamil Nadu?

SEASONS TAMIL NAME TAMIL MONTH
Summer(april toaugust) Ilavenil,muduvenil Chitirai, vaikasi, aani, aadi
Rainy(august to December) Khar season, khulir Avani, puratasi, iypasi, Karthigai
Winter(December to april) Mun pani, pin pani Markhazhi, thai, masi, panguni

3. Define monsoon.

The word monsoon is derived from the Arabic word ‘mausim’.

Mausim literally means season.

Monsoon refers to seasonal reversal in the wind direction between seasons.

4. Distinguish between south west monsoon and north west monsoon.

SOUTH WEST MONSOON NORTH EAST MONSOON
South west monsoon occurs between june and september. North east monsoon occurs between October and December.
The districts of nilgiris, kanyakumari, salem, Coimbatore, erode get rainfall. The coromandel coast of Tamil Nadu get heavy rainfall from north east monsoon.
It is summer monsoon. It is winter monsoon.
Tamil Nadu lies on the rain shadow of southwest monsoon It is associated with cyclones.

5. Distinguish between evergreen and monsoon forests.

EVERGREEN FOREST MONSOON FOREST
They are called evergreen They are called tropical forest since the leaves are present always deciduous forest
They never shed their leaves They shed their leaves to avoid loss of moisture during dry season.
They are located in the places which receive more than 200cms of rainfall They are located in areas which receive rainfall between 100 and 200cms
They are found on the slopes of nilgris, anaimalai and coastal areas of Tamil Nadu They are found on the eastern slopes of western ghats.

6. East coast of Tamil Nadu does not receive much rainfall during southwest monsoon give reasons?

As the south west monsoon starts its down pour of rain in the western ghats, the western parts of Tamil Nadu receive about 150 cm of rainfall on an average.

Most of the eastern and central parts of Tamil Nadu become rain shadow regions for this season.

The amount of rainfall during this season decreases from west to east.

7. Write a short note on cyclonic rainfall.

November is the month of cyclonic rainfall.

The low pressure gets formed in the southern part of Bay of Bengal.

It intensifies the cyclonic rainfall along the coastal districts of Tamil Nadu.

8. Name a few forest product of Tamil Nadu?

The forest product of Tamil Nadu can be grouped into.

They are major and minor products.

Major products include timber and fuel wood.

IV. ANSWER IN PARAGRAPH:

1. Describe the different types of natural vegetation of Tamil Nadu of tropical evergreen forest.

These forests never shed their leaves in a particular season.

They are grown in places with rainfall about 200cms.

These forests are located along the slopes of the nilgris and anaimalai hills and the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu.

b) Tropical deciduous forest or monsoon forest:

These forest are found in places with rain fall from 100 to 200 cms a year.

They are located on the eastern slopes of western ghats.

The trees shed their leaves to avoid the loss of moisture during dry season.

c) Thorny shrub forest:

These forest are found in dry areas with low rainfall

The vegetation is widely scatterded low trees and bushes

They are highly adaptive to dry conditions with the deep roots, thick stems and fleshy leaves.

d) mangrove forest

They are found in the tropical and sub tropical tidal areas with high degree of salinity

e) Hill forest

These are found along the hill slopes with heavy rainfall

1. Give an account of the rainy seasons of Tamil Nadu?

a) South west monsoon:

The south west monsoon occurs between june and September.

The districts of Nilgiris, Kanyakumari, western parts of

Coimbatore, Dharmapuri and Dalem receive rainfall.

The western parts of Tamil Nadu receive about 150 cms of rainfall.

The state possesses thick rain bearing clouds in the months of October, November and December.

b) North east monsoon:

The north east monsoon occurs between October and December.

The coastal and interior plains of Tamil Nadu get more rainfall.

Trichy, salem and erode receive 100 – 150 cms of rainfall.

c) Cyclonic rainfall:

November is the month of cyclonic rainfall.

Low pressure gets formed in the southern part of Bay of Bengal.

It gets intensified and brings cyclonic rainfall to the coastal districts of Tamil Nadu.

2. Write about the rainfall regions of Tamil Nadu?

Rainfall regions of Tamil Nadu. distribution of rainfall(2007 –2008)

S.No. DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL AMOUNT OF RAINFALL DISTRICT
1. Very low rainfall Below 800mm Coimbatore, Tirupur
2. Low rainfall From 800mm to 1000mm Namakkal, Karur, Thoothukudi, Erode, Dharmapuri, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Krishnagiri
3. Moderate rainfall From 1000mm to 1200mm Pudukottai, Virudhunagar, Sivagangai, Thanjavur, Salem, Ramanathapuram,Theni, Vellore
4. High rainfall From 1200mm to 1400mm Thirunelveli, Thiruvannamalai, Kanyakumari
5. Very high rainfall Above 1400mm Kanchipuram, Chennai, Vilupuram, Thiruvallur, Thiruvarur, Cuddalore, Nilgiris, Nagapattinam.
9th Geography

PHYSIOGRAPHY OF TAMIL NADU

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. kalrayan hills is located in eastern ghats.

2. Doddabetta is the highest peak in Tamil Nadu.

3. The river chittar is an important tributary of Tamirabarani river.

4. The longest river flowing in Tamil Nadu is kaveri.

5. The noyyal and amaravathi are tributaries of Kaveri.

II. Match the following:

1. Eastern ghats – shevarayan

2. western ghats – nilgiris

3. Kavari river – karnataka

4. Kodaikanal – queen of hill station

5. Vaigai – Madurai

III. Answer in Brief:

1. Name the important rivers of Tamil Nadu?

The northern rivers of Tamil Nadu are Araniyar, Korattalaiyar, Palar, Vaigai, Vaippar and Tamirabarani in the south are important rivers.

2. What are the major physical divisons of Tamil Nadu?

  • The hilly region(western ghats and eastern ghats)
  • The plateau
  • The plains
  • The coast line

3. Mention important hills in the northern districts of Tamil Nadu?

  • Javadi hills and Elagiri hills in Vellore district
  • Shervarayan hills in Salem district
  • Kalvarayan in Villupuram district
  • Pachai malai in Thiruchippalli district
  • Kolli hills in Nammakal district
  • Chitteri hills in Darmapuri and salem district
  • Gingee hills in Thiruvannamali district.

4. Write a short note on marina beach?

  • Marina beach is the second largest beach in the world.
  • It extends up to a distance of 13 km.
  • It is one of the major tourist attractions of Chennai.

5. Distinguish between Eastern ghats and Western ghats.

Eastern ghats Western ghats
Eastern ghats are not continuous   Its average height is from 1100m to 1600m   They extend from the north east to south west through the districts of Vellore, Darmapuri and erode. The highest hills of Eastern ghats is Shervarayan hills 1500m to 1600m. Western ghats is a continuous one   Its average height is from 1000m to 1500m   The western ghats enters the state through the Nilgris district and runs up to kanyakumari District.   The highest hills of western ghats is anaimalai hills 2700m Eastern ghats western ghats