8th Geography

POPULATION AND RESOURCES

I. Fill in the blanks

1. The ___________ population puts a lot of pressure on the available resources like land and water.

2. By 2025 ____________ billion people will be affected by severe water scarcity.

3. _____________ affects a large number of people living 110 countries.

4. In the developing countries 95% of the sewage is let into __________.

5. The first Indian Remote sensing satellite IRS IA was launched in ____________.

6. India has 20 percent of the earth’s population.

7. 35 percent of the earth’s land surface is threatened by desertification.

8. Desertification affects a large number of people living in 10 countries.

9. Sputnik I was launched in 1957.

10. The first Indian Remote sensing satellite was IRSIA.

II. Choose the correct answer

1. Fresh water of the Earth is only

a) 30%             b) 0.03%          c) 3%

2. Droughts erosion and global warming are caused due to

a) Deforestation b) Afforestation c) Hunting

3. The first artificial satellite launched by the Soviet Union was________

a) Sputnik I      b) Sputnik II     c) Kitsat

4. India has 20% of the population but the water available is __________

a) 5%               b) 4%               c) 20%

5. Water table is lowered when the ___________ activity increase

a) Mining         b) Huntin         c) Fishing

III. Match the following

1. Agricultural – a) Semi – arid – lands

2. Desertification – b) France

3. Commercial energy – c) Steady growth population

4. LANDSAT – d) Coal and Oil

5. SPOT – e) USA

IV. Answer briefly

1. What are results of over exploitation of resources?

The over exploitation of resources results in water scarcity, deforestation, desertification, food shortages exhaustion of minerals and population.

2. Write the impact of over population on water resources

i) Water use has growing at more than twice the rate of population increase in the last country.

ii) Increasing population over exports and pollutes the surface and underground water.

iii) The water is polluted by Industries. In the developing countries 95% of the sewage is let into rivers.

iv) As the pressure on the water resources intensifies, it lead to tension and conflicts among users.

v) By 2025, five billion people will be affected by the severe water scarcity.

3. Write the ill effects of over Population in the developing countries.

i) Over population puts a lot of pressure on the available resources like land and water.

ii) Growing population put a strain on the local environment and the limited resources.

iii) These countries that struggle to meet the growing demands for food, fresh water, timber and fuel alter the fragile environment.

4. Name the satellites use for earth resources.

i) LANDSAT of USA, SPOT of Pranee KITSAT and yagan of china are important satellites.

ii) India’s first Remote sensing satellite was IRSIA.

iii) IRSIB, IC, ID, P3, P5, P5 CARTOSAT and RESOURCE SAT are other satellite of India used ofr observing earth’s resources.

V. Answer in detail

1. Discuss the Utilization of resources in the developing and developed countries.

i) The increased population puts a lots of pressure on the resource like land and water.

ii) The population increase but the amount of a natural resources remains finite.

iii) Utilization of resources is a common process with both the developers countries and the developed countries.

Developing countries

i) Developing countries with large and growing population put a strain on the total environment and limited resources.

ii) These countries that struggle to meet the growing demands for food, fresh, water, timber and fuel after the fragile environment.

Developed Countries

i) Population pressure in developed countries put a greater strain on global resources and the Environment because of their very high standard of living.

ii) Large and increasing population results in greater pressure on the limited resources.

iii) The over exploitation of resources results in water scarcity, deforestation, desertification, food shortages, exhaustion of minerals and pollution.

2. Large and increasing population exerts pressures on the limited resource’s explain?

i) Large and increasing population results in great pressure on the limited resources. So there is over – exploitation of resources.

ii) The over – exploitation of resources results in water scarcity, deforestation, food shortages, exhaustion of minerals and pollution.

Water

i) Water demand exceed water supply

ii) There is limited supply of fresh water

iii) Increasing population over – exploits and pollutes the surface and underground water.

iv) Water is polluted by Industries

v) Sewage is let into the rivers.

vi) The more pressure on water resources leads to tensions and conflict among users.

Food supply and land availability

i) As population increases food supply has to increase

ii) But existing farmlands decline because of changing land uses

iii) To overcome the shortage of land, man has to clear forests for cultivation.

Deforestation

i) Eighty persent of the world’s natural forest is destroyed by human development activities wee logging, clearing for agriculture and grasing.

ii) Deforestation results in droughts, Soil erosion, flooding and global warming.

Desertification

i) 35% of the earth’s land is threatened by desertification

ii) It effects a large number of people living in 110 countries. Desertification occurs in the semi-arid lands and desertification in impossible to reverse.

MINERALS

I) Minerals are mined for greater depths.

ii) This increases ground pollution and lowers the water table.

Fuel

i) As fuel like coal, oil and natural gas are nonrenewable resource there is a decline in the availability of these fuels.

Land degradation

The land is affected by landslides induced by massive deforestation, Soil erosion, decline in Soil fertility, extensive water logging and Stalinization in irrigated areas, Unscientific mining quarrying, road building and waste disposal.

3. How are remote sensing satellites helpful in managing resources?

i) As population increasing humans have to find ways and means of finding additional resources of minerals and ground water.

ii) This requires understanding of the distribution and availability of natural resources over the earth.

iii) Earth observation satellites or Remote sensing satellites help in finding and managing resources.

iv) Remote sensing satellites play an important role in natural resources.

v) Important remote sensing satellites are LANDSAT of USA, SPOT of France, KITSAT of Korea and yoagon of china.

vi) The first Indian remote sensing satellites IRSIA was launched in 1988 it was followed by a number of other satellites IRS-IB,1C,1D,P3 etc.,

vii) The remote sensing data provide valuable information about land resources such as geology, sol, vegetation cover, water bodies and minerals.

viii) This information helps countries to plan for a sustainable future.

8th Geography

POPULATION GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION

I. Fill in the blanks:

1. The rise in Population has been steadily rapid since _________.

2. The birth rate is the number of line births in a year for every ________ people of the total Population.

3. The world population reached 6 billion in the year_________.

4. ____________ and human factors affect the distribution of people across the world.

5. Population density is calculated dividing the number of people in a country by the _________ of the country.

6. The growth of population depends on the _______rate and ________rate.

7. When the birth rate is low and the death rate is how the population will_____________.

8. The difference between the birth rate and the death rate is termed as _____________.

9. Developing countries have ___________ death rates and _________ birth rates.

II. Choose the correct answer:

1. When birth rates are high and death rates are __________ the population of an area will increase.

a) High b) Low c) Stable

2. About 90% of the earth’s people line on ___________

a) 10 b) 20 c) 25

3. _____________ is considered the most densely populated country.

a) China b) Mexico c) Bangladesh

4. Areas with ____________ climates tend to be sparsely populated

a) Favourable b) Extreme c) Cool

5. ________ with stable government has high population density

a) Afghanistan b) Egypt c) Singapore

III. Match the following

1. 1804  a) Low Population density
2. Monaco  b) Least density of Population
3. Low birth rate and  c) 1 billion Population high death rate
4. Australia  d) Population decline
5. Germany  e) High Population density

IV. Answer briefly

1. Define

a) Birth rate:

Birth rate is the number of line births in a year for every 1000 people in the total population.

b) Death rate:

Death rate is the number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people in the total population.

c) Population density:

Population density is defined as the number of people per sq.km. It is calculated by dividing the number of people of a country by the area of that country.

2. How does climate affect population distribution and density?

i) Areas with favourable climates tend to be densely populated as there is enough rain and heat to grow crops . Eg. India

ii) Areas with extreme climates are sparsely populated because the conditions are not suitable for living.

Eg. The hot Sahara desert and extremely cold areas like Greenland.

V. Detail

1. Give a detailed account of the world’s population growth?

i) World’s population has been growing rapidly since 1950.

ii) The improvements in medical care, health, flood control and fire protection etc., helped to control the natural loss.

Thus started low death and increase in births.

iii) The growth of population or the natural increase of population depends on the birth rate and death rate.

iv) When birth rates are higher than death rates, the population will increase.

v) When the birth rate is low and the death rate is high, the population will decline.

vi) Different countries are at different stages of population change.

vii) The developed countries of the world have low birth and death rates.

2. What are the different human factors that affect population density? Explain.

Political, Social and economic factors affect population density. Those are called human factors.

Political factors

i) Countries with stable governments tend to have a high population density. Example : Singapore

ii) Countries with unstable as people move away

Example : Afghanistan

Social factors

Groups of people prefer to time close to each other for security. Then there will be high density of population.

Example : USA

Some groups of people prefer to be isolated. Then these will be low density of population.

Example : Scandinavians

Economic factors

i) Good job opportunities cause high population densities, particularly in large cities in both the more economically developed.

Example : Tokyo

8th Geography

TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

I. Fill in the blanks

1. The Transcontinental railway links ______________ with Vladivostok.

2. ____________ are the cheap means of transport.

3. Buckingham canal carried goods from Nellore to _______________.

II. Choose the correct answer

1. ______________ is a major port

a) Puducherry  b) Chennai      c) Cuddalore

2. Pipelines are used to carry__________

a) Coal             b) Oil              c) Wood

3. Telegraph was invented in the year __________

a) 1844             b) 1855           c) 1866

4. The most common mode of the transport is the

a) Roadways    b) Railways      c) Water ways

5. Indian Railways is the _________ largest in the world.

a) Second         b) Third            c) Fourth

6. The Fastest means of transport is the ___________

a) Roadways    b) Railways       c) Airways

III. Match the following

1. Brahmaputra – a) North America

2. Rhine – b) Transcontinental Highway

3. Alaskan Highway – c) Major port

4. Visakhapatnam – d) Inland water ways

5. TPAS – e) Germany

IV. Answer the following

1. How are roads classified?

Roads are classified as transcontinental highways national highways and local roads.

2. Write a note on Indian Railways.

i) Railways are the cheapest and fastest means of transport for carrying bulk goods over long distances.

ii) It is the densest in the Gangetic Plains of U.P., Bihar and West Bengal.

iii) These rail lines are either underground rail lines or elevated above the ground.

3. Name the different means of communication.

i) Tele communication and mass communication are the two types of communication.

1. What is meant by road density?

Road density is the ratio between the total length of roads in a country to its total land area.

2. What is meant by Population density?

Population density is the ratio between the total number of people in a country to its total land area.

V. Paragraph:

1. Write about the major Shipping routes of the world.

i) The North Atlantic route connects the crowded countries of Europe to the Eastern coast of North America.

ii) The Cape of Good Hope route connects western and Southern Europe with South- West Asia and Australia.

iii) The panama canal route connects the west coast regions of North and South Americas with their east Coastal regions.

2. What do you know about inland waterways?

i) Deep navigable rivers with a perennial flow of water and navigation canals constitute the inland water ways.

ii) The most important inland water way lies in the industrially advanced countries of western Europe, North America and Canada.

3. Give an account of mass communication.

i) Mass communication includes all those media designed to reach a large audience.

ii) Mass communication can be divided into two categories the print media include books, Journals, Magazines and news papers.

VI. Detailed

1. The development of transport and communication is important for the development of a country Discuss.

TRANSPORT

i) Transport and communication play an important role in the development of a country.

ii) A good transportation system helps the movement and exchanged of resources and manpower resulting in economic growth.

iii) Roadways help the economic development of a country.

iv) There is a close relationship between road density and the economic development of a country.

v) The greater the road connectivity, the more is the economic developments.

vi) Railways are cheap and fast means of transport.

vii) Air ways are the fastest and costliest means of transport.

COMMUNICATION

i) Telecommunication and mass communication also play an important role in the development of country.

ii) The Indian National Satellite has revolutionized communication in India in recent years.

8th Geography

TRADE

I. Fill in the blanks

1. Latin America exports _______________.

2. Rubber and tin are found abundantly in ________________.

3. Industrial countries export ___________ to the less industrial countries.

4. Trade between countries is called ____________.

5. The European country which exports large amount of paper and wood pulp ___________.

6. Latin American countries import_____________.

7. African countries are the importers of ______________.

II. Match the following:

1. China – Middle Eastern countries

2. Oil – Mineral Ores

3. Paper – Silk

4. Africa – Malaysia

5. Tin – Canada

III. Choose the correct answer

1. Trade with in the country is called _________________.

a) Internal trade b) International Trade c) Open trade

2. Industrial raw materials are _____________ products

a) Primary b) Secondary c) Tertiary

3. Switzerland is famous for ____________

a) Silk b) Watchers c) Tea

IV. Answer the following

1. What is meant by bilateral and multilateral trade?

i) Bilateral trade is the exchange of commodities between two countries.

ii) Multilateral trade is the exchange of commodities between a number of countries.

2. What are the two main categories of commodities that enter into the world trade?

i) Primary products include cereals – fruits and other food items

ii) Cotton, Jute etc are also primary products.

iii) Secondary products are manufactured goods.

3. Why does trade occur?

i) Trade occurs because of surplus of goods in one place and the demand for the same in another place.

ii) The difference in the natural resources of countries forms the basis of trade between countries.

IV. Paragraph

1. How does climate affect the trade of a country?

i) Differences in climatic conditions result in different types of agricultural, animal and forest products.

ii) So difference in climatic conditions affect the trade of a country.

iii) Exchange of goods takes place between different climatic regions.

iv) For example Temperate regions supply softwood and dairy products.

2. Write a short on balance of trade

i) The difference in values between imports and exports of a country is referred to as the balance of trade.

ii) If exports exceed imports the country is said to have a favourable balance.

V. Detail

1. Discuss the factors that affect trade.

Uneven distribution of natural resources.

Differences in climate, geology, Soil, vegetation and minerals resources result in the exchange of goods.

Stage of industrial

Industrial countries export finished products to other loss industrialized countries.

Differences in Climate

i) Differences in Climatic conditions result in different types of agricultural, animal and forest products.

ii) So differences in Climatic conditions affect the trade of a country.

Differences in Population

i) People in different regions produce distinctive types of goods because of their long tradition of producing certain goods.

ii) Countries like china exports silk and Switzerland exports watches.

Transportation

Transportation play an important role in the development of trade. The development of roads. Oil Pipeline and so on in a country facilitate international trade by transporting a variety of bulky goods to the ports.

Government Policies

International trade is influenced by Political relationship. When the relationship  between countries is good, then there is more trade.

2. Give an account of the world’s major trading regions.

Europe

Europe is one of the most densely Populated and highly industrialized regions.

North America

The USA has the largest volume of trade together with Canada.

Latin America

This region covers the Caribbean Islands and central and South America countries.

All them export foodstuffs and raw materials and import manufactured goods.

Africa

African countries export minerals ores and tropical raw materials and import manufactured goods.

Asia

Asian countries are rich in raw materials and minerals and they export them.

8th Geography

MINING

I. Fill in the blanks:

1. Mining is also known as a ____________ Industry.

Ans : Robber

2. Open cast mining is also called__________.

Ans : Quarrying

3. Minerals are non – renewable____________.

Ans : Resources

4. Mica is used in _____________ industries.

Ans : Electrical

5. ____________are tower like features in the oil fields.

Ans : Derricks

6. Minerals are classified based on their metallic content as_______ minerals, _________ minerals and________.

Ans : metallic, non – metallic, power.

7. In the alluvial mining minerals are extracted by ________or_________.

Ans : Panning, dredging

8. Minerals once extracted cannot be__________.

Ans : Replaced

9. Lime stone is extracted by _________.

Ans : Quarrying

10. Sulphur is used in _________ industries.

Ans : Heavy chemical

II. Choose the correct answer:-

1. The mineral found in alluvial deposits is ___________.

a) Gold                        b) Iron             c) Coal

Ans : a) Gold

2. The ore of aluminium is ____________.

a) Sulphur                    b) Salt              c) Bauxite

Ans : c) Bauxite

3. Anthracite is the ore of _____________.

a) Iron                          b) Coal                         c) Gold

Ans : b) Coal

4. A kind of non metallic mineral is

a) Petroleum                b) Sulphur        c) Iron

Ans : b) Sulphur

III. Match the following:

1. Fuel  a) Tin
2. Malaysia  b) Gold
3. Alluvial Mining  c) Quarrying
4. Limestone  d) Chile
5. Copper  e) Coal

Ans : 1 – E, 2 – A, 3 – B, A – C, 5 – D.

IV.Answer briefly:-

1. How do Minerals occur on the earth?

i) Minerals may occur in pure form or many be mixed with other materials of the rocks as ores.

ii) Minerals ores may occur in cracks, faults or joints of rocks or as sediments.

2. Write a note on Shaft mining.

i) In the shaft mining ores are extracted from greater depths beneath the surface.

ii) Shaft mining is more expensive than the surface mining.

3. Name the different types of coal.

Peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite are the different are mineral fuels.

4. What are mineral fuels?

Coal, Oil and natural gas are mineral fuels.

5. What is alluvial mining?

Alluvial mining is used to extract minerals by panning or dredging minerals like tin and gold which are sometimes mixed with alluvium in the river bed.

V. Detail

1. Describe the types of mining.

i) There are different types of mining to extract minerals. Mining may be on the surface or subsurface depending the occurrence of minerals.

ii) Surface mining, Quarrying and drilling are the three major types of mining.

Surface Mining

Surface mining method includes open cast mining strip mining and alluvial mining. It is used to mine the minerals.

Open Cast Mining

Open cast mining method includes open cost mining.

Strip mining

Strip mining removes long strips of over lying soil and rock.

Alluvial mining

Alluvial mining is used to extract minerals by panning or dredging minerals like tin and gold which are sometimes mixed with alluviam in the river bed.

Quarrying

Quarrying is the mining of building materials like limestone from the earth’s surface.

Underground mining

i) In underground mining ores extracted from greater depths beneath the surface.

ii) Underground mining is more expensive than the surface mining.

Drilling

i) Drilling method is used to extract minerals like oil and natural gas.

ii) Oil rigs are used for sights in the fields are the tower like features or derricks which mark the places where the oil is being drilled.

2. Write an essay on metallic minerals.

Minerals like iron, Copper, aluminium, tin and gold are metallic.

Iron Ore

i) Magnetite, hematite, limonite and siderite are the different types of iron ore.

ii) Iron one mines are found largely in U.S.A Canada, Australia, China, Brazil, India and Kazakhstan.

Copper

i) Copper is Mined from open pits.

ii) Large copper mines are found in Utah in USA Mexico, Zambia, Chile and Indonesia.

Bauxite:

i) Bauxite is the ore of aluminum

ii) Bauxite is the ore of aluminum

Tin

i) Tin ore is called cassiterite

ii) Tin ore is obtained by alluvial mining.

Gold

i) Gold is a precious

ii) It is extracted through the placer or alluvial method

iii) Carat is the term used for the purity of gold.

8th Geography

TYPES OF PRIMARY ACTIVITY

I. Fill in the blanks:

1. Activities for which humans depend directly on nature known as______________.

Ans : Primary activity.

2. _________is an activity in which people graze a large number of animals on natural pastures.

Ans : Herding

3. The most primitive form of Primary activity is __________ and_______.

Ans : Food gathering and hunting.

4 _________temperate forests are more extensively used for _________.

Ans : Lumbering

5. __________in oceans is usually a more complex activity.

Ans : Fishing

II. Choose the correct answer:

1. Jaravas are aborigines of ____________.

a) Andaman and Nicobar         b) Africa          c) Canada

Ans : a) Andaman and Nicobar

2. Eskimos of Canada are ___________.

a) Hunters                                b) Gatherers     c) Herders

Ans : a) Hunters

3. Abundant food for fishes are available near_____________.

a) Continental shelf     b) Continental slope c) Trenches

Ans : a) Continental shelf

4. Two – thirds of industrial wood is obtained from___________.

a) Temperate forests                b) Tropical forests       c) Tundra

Ans : a) Temperate forests

5. Primary activity that is practiced on a larger scale is_____________.

a) Gathering                 b) Hunting                   c) Mining

Ans : c) Mining

III. Match the following:

1. Bushman – a) Tropical forests

2. Japan – b) Africa

3. Teak – c) Fishing grounds

4. Coniferous – d) Animal food

5. Fodder – e) Soft wood

Ans : 1 – B, 2 – C, 3 – A, 4 – E, 5 – D

IV. Answers briefly:

1. Name the Primary activities.

Hunting, gathering, harding, lumbering, mining, fishing and agriculture are Primary activities.

2. What is herding?

i) Herding is a primary activity in which people graze a large number of animals on natural pastures.

ii) This involves seasonal migration of the nomads and their flocks from one area to another in search of fresh pastures.

3. Name some places and people involved in gathering activity.

i) Bushman of Africa

ii) Jaravas of Andaman and Nicobar.

4. What is inland fishing?

i) Fishing done in rivers, lakes and coastal areas is called inland fishing.

ii) Inland Fishing is simple and a small scale.

5. Why are temperate forests used more extensively than tropical forests for lumbering?

i) In the temperate forest trees have soft wood.

ii) A large number of coniferous trees of the same type are found together.

V. Detail:

1. Discuss the fishing activity in the oceans.

i) Fishing in the Oceans is more complex activity.

ii) Abundant food for the fish in the form of Plankton is available in the continental shelves and shallow seas.

iii) Large ships called factory ships travel in the oceans for months at a time.

iv) They catch, process and tin the fish on the ship itself.

v) They use modern technology to track the fish. This has often resulted in overfishing in some parts of the world.

vi) Besides fishing, whale and seal hunting and pearl collection are also carried out in the oceans.

2. Write an essay on the types of Primary activities.

Gathering hunting, herding, fishing, lumbering and mining are Primary activities.

Gathering:

i) Gathering is Primary activity in which people gather their requirements from nature.

ii) It includes the collections of fruits and roots from forests and includes hunting also.

Hunting:

i) People hunt animals for their meat and skin.

ii) Hunting is still prevalent among remote isolated groups of people.

iii) Pygmies of Africa and Amerindians of the Amazon basin and Eskimos of Canada go for hunting.

Herding:

i) It is a Primary activity in which people graze a large number of animals on pastural lands.

ii) People migrate from one place to another in search of fresh pastures.

iii) Now the nature of herding is different in different regions.

iv) The herders of North America, South America and Australia more to large ranches where fodder is cultivated.

Fishing:

i) Fishing is going on in rivers, lakes and coastal areas.

ii) In land fishing is simple and it is done in a small scale.

iii) Simple fish nets are used to catch fish.

Lumbering :

i) Lumbering is a Primary activity that extracts woods from the forests.

ii) Timber is used for fuel, furniture making, paper and pulp industry.

Mining and agriculture:

i) Mining and agriculture are other primary activities.

ii) They involve more human interaction and they are practiced on a large scale.

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS:

I. Fill in the blanks:-

1. Masai Herdsmen are the natives of ________________.

2. The world’s largest inland fishing lake is _______________.

3. Large ship that travel in the oceans for months at a time are called________________.

4. Hard wood trees are found in _________________ forests.

5. Mining is a ______________ activity.

8th Geography

RESOURCES AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

I. Fill in the blanks:-

1. According to the stage of evolution economic activities are grouped into _________main types.

Ans : Five

2. In Primary activity people are ________involved with the resources of nature.

Ans : Directly

3. Processing and converting raw materials to a finished from is called _____________activity.

Ans : Secondary

4. The workers involved with tertiary activities are called as ______ collar.

Ans : Pink

5. In _______ countries primary and secondary activities are more than the tertiary and quinary activities.

Ans : developing

II. Choose the Correct answer:

1. This is a Primary activity_____________.

a) Lumbering               b) Banking                  c) Consultation

Ans : a) Lumbering

2. People working in __________ sectors are called white collar workers

a) Primary                    b) Secondary              c) Quarternary

Ans : c) Quarternary

3. ___________ promotes industrial activities

a) grazing                     b) transport                  c) hunting

Ans : b) transport

4. Quinary activities are more in ____________.

a) Villages                    b) Schools        c) metropolitan centres

Ans : c) metropolitan centres

5. Policy activities are more in ______________.

a) Primary activity       b) Quinary activity c) Tertiary activity

Ans : b) Quinary activity

III. Match the following:

1. Blue coller workers – a) Fishing

2. Entertainment – b) Tertiary

3. Trade – c) Secondary

4. Primary – d) Skilled and Unskilled

5. Labour – e) quarternary

Ans : 1 – C, 2 – E, 3 – B, 4 – A, 5 – D.

IV. Write brief answers.

1. What are Primary activities?

i) The activities in which human’s are directly involved with the resources are called primary activities.

ii) Food gathering, hunting animals, grazing, extracting minerals (Mining), Fishing, Lumbering, and cultivation of the land are called Primary activities.

iii) Workers involved in Primary activities are called red – collar workers.

2. Write a short note on tertiary activities.

i) Trade, Transport and communication, which are related services that promote secondary activities are called the tertiary activities.

ii) Tertiary activities involve the expertise provide by the specialized skill of technicians workers bankers etc.,

iii) The workers involved in tertiary activities are called pink – collar workers.

3. Write about quinary activities.

i) The decision makers and policy makers at the highest land fall into this category.

ii) Legal advisors and professional consultants in Private and Government sector come under this category.

iii) They are called Gold-Collar workers.

iv) Quinary activities are seen more in metropolitan centres.

V. Detail

1. Discuss the different types of economic of man.

i) Economic of man activities can be grouped into 5 types.

1) primary activities

2) Secondary activities

3) Tertiary activities

4) Quarternary activities

5) Quinary activities.

Primary Activities:

i) The activities in which humans are directly involved with the resources are called Primary activities.

ii) Foot gathering, hunting animals, grazing etc.,

iii) Workers involved in Primary activities are called red – collar workers.

Secondary activities

i) Humans increase the value of resources by processing and converting the raw materials into a valuable product in the secondary activities.

ii) Examples of such activities are the production of sugar from sugarcane and iron and steel from its raw materials etc.,

iii) Raw materials are processed with other inputs.

iv) Workers involved in Secondary activities are called blue – collar workers.

Tertiary activities:

i) Trade Transport and communication, which are related to services that promote secondary activities are called the tertiary activities.

ii) Tertiary activities involve the expertise provided by the specialized skill of technicians, workers, bankers etc.,

Quarternary activities:

i) Services rendered by professionals in education, legal aid, medicine, entertainment, recreation management, research and development which have specialized environments fall under the category of Quartenary activities.

ii) People working in these sectors are called white – collar workers.

iii) Generally this activity is concentrated in Urban centres.

Quinary activities:

i) Decision makers and policy makers at the highest level fall into the category.

ii) Legal advisors and professional consultants in Private and Government sector come under this category.

iii) They are called Gold – Collar workers.

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS:

I. Fill in the blanks:

1. Hunting is a ______________ activity.

2. The workers involved in Primary activities are called ___________ collar workers.

3. Activities related to services are called ______________ activities.

4. Quinary activities are seen more in__________________.

8th Geography

RESOURCES AND THEIR TYPES

I. Fill in the blanks:-

1. A material which is found in nature and is useful to human is called___________.

Ans : Resource.

2. Minerals once extracted cannot be____________.

Ans : Replaced.

3. _____________play a very important role in the economic development of a country.

Ans : Power minerals

4. Uranium is a __________ minerals.

Ans : Nuclear

5. ______________have ebormous potential to develop solar power.

Ans : Tropical regions

6. Resources are classified into __________ and __________ resources.

Ans : Potential and developed

7. On the basis of renewability resources are classified into ____________ and ____________ resources.

Ans : Renewable and non-renewable

8. Minerals are classified into __________ and _____________ minerals.

Ans : metallic and non-metallic

9. India’s largest offshore oil fuels is in Mumbai High.

Ans : Mumbai High.

II. Choose the correct answer:-

1. Resources already in use by humans are called

a) Developed               b) Potential                  c) Flow resource

Ans : a) Developed

2. Minerals are resources.

a) Renewable               b) Non – renewable     c) Biotic

Ans : b) Non – renewable

3. A major user of wind energy in the world is

a) Europe                     b) South America         c) Antarctica

Ans : a) Europe

4. Type of Coal mined our state is

a) Lignite                     b) Anthracite                c) Graphite

Ans : a) Europe

5. The largest Hydro electric Power project of India is

a) Bakra nangal            b) Mettur                      c) Damodar

Ans : a) Bakra nangal

6. Lignite is also called _____________.

a) Brown coal              b) Black Coal              c) Brown Coal

Ans : c) Brown Coal

7. In Tamil Nadu, Lignite is mined at ______________.

a) Neyveli                    b) Nilgiris                     c) Salem

Ans : a) Neyveli

8. In India major oil fields are found in ______________.

a) Orissa                      b) Assam                     c) West Bengal

Ans : b) Assam

9. The delta area in TamilNadu where petroleum is found is_____________.

a) Vaigai          b) Cauvery       c) South Pennar

Ans : b) Cauvery

10. The world’s largest producer of nuclear power is _____________.

a) UK b) USA c) Japan

III. Match the following:-

1. North Sea – a) Nuclear Power

2. Avalvaimozhi – b) Oil fields

3. Oil and coal – c) Yangtze

4. Three Gorges dam – d) Fossil fuel

5. Thorium – e) Wind farms

Ans : 1 – B, 2 – E, 3 – D, 4 – E, 5 – A

IV. Write brief answers:-

1. Define a) Non – renewable resources and b) Potential resources.

a) Non renewable resources

i) Non – renewable resources are exhaustible resources because nature has a fixed stock of these resources.

ii) They are consumed faster than nature can replace them.

iii) Minerals are non-renewable resources because once they are extracted they cannot be replaced.

iv) Metallic minerals are examples of non-renewable resources.

b) Potential resources

i) Potential resources are those resources which have not yet been utilized by human.

ii) Resources of Siberia and Antarctica are examples potential resources.

2. Write about winds energy.

i) Wind energy is generated by using the wind to run turbines areas where there is constant flow of wind.

ii) Europe is a major user of wind energy.

iii) Twenty percent of Denmark’s electricity comes from wind power.

iv) In India Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu have developed wind Power.

v) In Tamil Nadu a large number of wind mills are found is Aralvaimozhi.

3. Why should we use resources wisely?

i) We should use non-renewable resources wisely because they cannot be replaced.

Nature has a fixed stock of these resources.

4. What are the three spheres that support the Biosphere?

They are Lithosphere or land the Hydrosphere or water and the atmosphere or the air that envelops the earth.

5. Mention the major oil fields of India.

i) In India Assam stands first in oil fields.

ii) Offstone oil fields are found in Mumbai High.

iii) In Tamil Nadu oil fields are found in the Cauvari basin.

6. Mention the places where nuclear power stations are located in India.

In India nuclear power stations are located at Madras, Rajasthan, kaiga, Tarapura, kakrapara and Narora.

V. Answer the following questions in detail:-

1. Explain the formation of Cool and Oil.

COAL:

i) Coal is called a “fossil fuel” because it was “formed many million years ago.

ii) Large forests were buried in Sedimentary basins by geological processes.

iii) Over time the buried plant matter got converted into coal due to pressure and heat.

iv) Coal fields are found largely in USA, Russia, Germany and the U.K.

OIL:

i) Oil is usually found in some strata of marine sedimentary rocks like mudstone, shale sandstone.

ii) The remains of Plants and Calcareous animals (Shelled animals) which buried in the earth were subjected to heat and Pressure.

iii) They changed into oil. This oil is found trapped in the pore spaces of the rocks.

2. Write an account of renewable resources.

i) Renewable resources are those which are infinite or are constantly renewed by nature.

ii) They continue to be available even after a part of it is consumed.

iii) Hydro – electric power, Solar power and wind energy are important renewable resources.

Hydro – Electric Power:

i) Hydro – electric power is the most developed source of renewable power.

ii) It is generated from falling water.

iii) Hydrological power is used extensively in many parts of the world where there are large rivers.

Solar Energy:

i) Solar energy is use to light homes, building and heat water.

ii) photovoltaic cells are required to stone the sun is energy.

iii) Germany is the world’s largest producer of Solar power.

iv) Tropical regions have anommous potential to develop solar power.

Wind energy :

i) Wind energy is generated by using the wind to run turbines in areas where there is constant flow of wind.

ii) Twenty percent of Denmark’s electricity comes from wind power.

iii) Europe is the major user of wind energy.