I. Choose the correct answer:
1. The parliament consists of two houses.
2. The prime minister is appointed by
3. Lok sabha has 545 elected members.
4. Members of lok sabha are elected by
5. The upper house is known as rajya
6. The head of Indian republic and
union is president.
7. Money bills cannot be introduced
without the approval of president.
8. The union finance minister presents
annual budget before the lok sabha.
9. The article of the constitution
provides for a vice president article 63.
10. The president of India is Mr.
11. The Supreme Court judge is
appointed by the president.
12. Number of judges in Supreme Court
13. The Supreme Court judges retire at
the age of 65.
14. Lok Adalat was introduced in 1987.
15. Head quarters of Supreme Court is
in New Delhi.
II. Answer briefly:
1. What are the qualifications to
become a member of the rajya sabha?
- He or she must be a citizen of India.
- Must not be less than 30 years of age.
- Must possess such other qualifications may be
prescribed by the parliament.
- Must not be a member of lok sabha.
- Must be a person with sound mind and
- Must not hold any office of profit under any
2. How is the prime minister elected?
According to the constitution of India,
the leader of the majority party or majority group in the lok sabha is
appointed as prime minister.
Prime minister of India is appointed
by the president of India.
3. What is a bicameral legislature?
- Indian parliament consists of two houses
called Rajya sabha and Lok sabha.
- Since there are two houses in the parliament
it is called bicameral legislature.
- Bicameral legislature also refers to states
having two houses namely the legislative assembly and legislative council. (eg.
Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and
Kashmir, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana, and Uttar Pradesh have legislative
4. Explain the term “lok sabha”.
- Lok sabha is the house of people.
- Its members are directly elected by the people
- It enjoys vast powers since its members are
- Hence the lower house of the parliament is
called the lok sabha or house of the people.
5. What is Electoral College?
- The electoral college consist of the elected
members of the both houses of the parliament, the elected members of the states
and elected members of the national capital territory of Delhi and Pondicherry.
6. Who are all appointed by the
- The president appoints the prime minister and
other members of the council of ministers.
- The judges of supreme courts and high courts
are also appointed by him.
- The president appoints the heads of the
election commission, the attorney general chair person, members of UPSC, heads
of armed forces, etc.
7. When is the emergency power
- The president is empowered to declare
emergency when there is a threat to security of India by war, external
rebellion or during armed rebellion. It is called national emergency. (Art.
- If a government of a state cannot be carried
on in accordance with the provision of the constitution he declares state
emergency. (Art. 356)
- If a financial stability or credit of India is
threatened, financial emergency is declared. (Art. 360)
8. How is the vice president elected?
- A person to become the vice president of India
should possess all the qualifications that are required to become a president
- The vice president of India is elected by the
members of the parliament.
9. What are the qualifications of the
Supreme Court judge?
- The person who could become the judge of the
Supreme Court must possess the following qualification;
- Must be a citizen of India.
- Should have worked as a judge of a high court
for at least 5 years.
- Should have worked as an advocate of a high
court for at least 10 years.
10. What is the original jurisdiction?
- The cases which are brought directly in the
first instance to the Supreme Court come under original jurisdiction. For
example, the dispute between the government of India and one or more states.
11. What is judicial review?
- The judiciary can declare a law
- This power of the judiciary is known as judicial
- By judicial review, the Supreme Court can
declare a law null and void when it is found against the constitution.
12. Write the function of the high
- The two main judicial function of the high
court are original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction.
- The high court supervises the working of all
- The state high court is empowered to issue
writs and orders in the enforcement of fundamental rights and also other
13. Explain the power of the
- The Supreme Court hears appeals against the
decisions of the high court.
- It hears appeals in civil, criminal and
- The high court produces a certificate saying
the case is fit to appeal in the Supreme Court.
III. Answer in a paragraph:
1. What are the powers and functions
of the parliament?
- The parliament consists of two houses called
rajya sabha and lok sabha.
- So it is a bicameral legislature.
- It has absolute control over the finances of
- It passes the union budget.
- It has the power to amend any provision of the
- It can impeach the highest constitutional
- The approval of the parliament is required to
continue with the emergency promulgated by the president.
2. Explain the council of ministers.
a)The number of members of the council
of ministers is not specified in the constitution.
- The ministers are classified under three
- They are cabinet ministers, ministers of state
and deputy ministers.
a) Cabinet ministers:
- The cabinet is the policy making body of the
- It is a collective body. Decisions are taken
either by consensus or majority.
- Normally the cabinet ministers are assigned
important portfolios such as finance home, external affairs and railways.
b) Ministers of state:
- They are also in the charge of ministers or
departments, but they do not participate in the meetings of the cabinet, unless
invited to do so.
c) Deputy Ministers:
- They assist either the ministers of cabinet or
state in the performance of the duties entrusted to them.
3. Explain the powers of the
- The powers of the president can be divided
into two categories namely
- Power in normal times and
- Emergency powers.
- In normal times, the president enjoys
- Executive powers,
- Legislative powers,
- Financial powers,
- Judicial powers,
- Military powers and
- Diplomatic powers.
(a) Executive powers
- Laws passed by the parliament are promulgated
with the president’s assent.
- The president is authorized to make
- The president is the supreme commander of the
(b) Legislative powers
- The president can summon, prorogue both the houses
- Lok sabha can be dissolved by him.
- Inaugural address is given by him.
- The combined sessions of the parliament will
be addressed by him.
(c) Judicial powers
- The president is not answerable to any court
- He can pardon or remit or suspend a sentence
of punishment even by the court, a martial or death
- sentences passed by a court.
(d) Financial powers
- The constitution empowers the president to
have control over the finances of the state.
- Annual budget is presented with his approval,
by the finance minister.
- Contingency fund is at the disposal of the
(e) Emergency powers
- The president is given the power to declare
- national emergency
- state emergency
- financial emergency.
4. What are the functions of the vice president?
- The vice president of India occupies the 2nd
highest office in country.
- No specific functions are attached to the
office of the vice president.
- The normal function of the vice president is
to act as the ex-officio chairperson of rajya sabha.
- If there occurs any vacancy in the office of
the president due to death, resignation, removal or otherwise, the vice
president acts as he president until a new president is elected.
5. Explain the powers and the
functions of the Supreme Court?
a) Judicial functions:
- The Supreme Court is the guardian of the
- The two main judicial functions of the Supreme
Court are original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction.
b) Original jurisdiction:
- The cases which are brought directly in the
first instance to the supreme court under original
- The writs issued by the Supreme Court to
enforce the fundamental rights are the
- Habeas corpus,
- Quo -warranto.
c) Appellate jurisdiction:
- The supreme courts hear appeals against the
decision of the high court in civil, criminal and constitutional cases.
- The high court certifies the case whether it
is fit to appeal in the Supreme Court.
d) Administrative functions:
- There is a chain of codes of different types
to provide justice.
- There are at present 24 high courts.
- Below the high courts, there are the
subordinate courts of different categories.
e) Judicial review:
- Judicial review gives the power to the Supreme
Court to declare a law as unconstitutional.
- By this power the Supreme Court can declare a
law null or void if it is found against the constitution.
- Hence the Supreme Court is known as the
guardian of the constitution.
6. Explain the role of high court
- As per the article 214 of the constitution,
there shall be a high court in each state.
- There may be a common high court for two or
more states or union territory.
- It consists of chief justice and other judges.
- The high court enjoys original and appellate
jurisdiction as the Supreme Court does.
- The other courts have to follow the rules and
regulations framed by the high court.
- There is a bench of Chennai high court
functioning in Madurai.