9th Civics

CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL ISSUES OF TAMIL NADU

I.CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

1. Dravidan Hostel for non Brahmin students was run by Dr. Natesa Mudhaliar

2. Dr.Muttulakshmi abolished Devadasi system

3. Self respect movement was led by Periyaar.

4. First amendment to the fundamental rights for social reservation polishes to the state was brought by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

5. Panchami land Act distributes lands to Scheduled communities.

II.ANSWER IN BRIEF:

1. What are the inequalities of the society in Tamil Nadu.

Sudras and Panchamas were deprived education, government jobs, right to temple entry, property and usage of public paths and water sheds.

Such a system resulted in exploitation of majority of people by the people of higher classes.

2. What are the results of the Bakthi Movement?

Due to bhakthi movement the temple system became a major socio political economical factor.

The brahmins by invoking ‘Agamas’ captured the priesthood in the rich temples.

3. Write a short on justice party.

Pitty Thiyagaraja chetty and Dr. T.M. Nair organized a socio political movement popularly known as the Justice party.

4. Who condemned the Varna and caste system?

The siddhas and Ramalinga Vallalar and Vaikundaswamy in Tamil Nadu disapproved caste system.

Mahatrma Phule and Sahu Maharaj in Maharashtra, Narayana Guru in Kerala, Ayodhidasa Pandithar in Tamil Nadu condemned both varna and caste.

5. What is meant by self respect marriages?

It was started by E.V.R. He conducted a lot of self respected marriages, which means marriage without any rituals.

6. Define child labor.

Child labor means a working child who is between 6 and 15 years of age, not attending school during the day, and working under an employer or learning some trade.

III. ANSWER IN A PARAGRAPH:

1. Write some of the social issues in Tamil Nadu.

  • Social divisions exist in every country.
  • But India’s caste system is a unique one.
  • Here social status, responsibilities, social religious privileges and occupational positions have been determined by birth.
  • Large sections of manual workers have been termed as Sudras and Panchamas.
  • Such a system, resulted in exploitation of majority of people by the people of higher castes.

2. Write a note on Untouchability.

  • Untouchability in India is worse than slavery and ‘Apartheid’.
  • Until the advent of the British rule and during the British rule the untouchables were treated as out castes.
  • They were not only untouchables but also unseeable, unapproachable, and they had no right to education, to residence in general villages and towns, to use public path and watersheds, to enter temples.’
  • Even in the early 20th century Panchamas and sometimes Sudras were not allowed to use the public transport and public restaurants.
  • In Tamil Nadu Ayothiadsas Pandithar suggested conversions to Buddhism.

3. What was the government provision to child labor prevention?

  • Article 24 of the Indian constitution mentions explicitly that no child below the age of 14 shall be employed to work in any factory or mine.
  • At least 13 major legislative enactments for children have been made.
  • Factories Act of 1948, Mines Act of 1952 were brought in different states.
  • Free and compulsory primary education midday meal schemes are meant to reduce the child labor.

4. Write a note on Transgender in Tamil Nadu.

  • The term transgender (TG) was popularized in the 1970’s describing people who wanted to live cross gender without sex reassignment surgery.
  • Tamil Nadu became the first state in the country to recognize transgender as a separate gender and issue ration card to them.
  • Members of the Transgender community in Chennai launched the matrimonial website for their clan.
  • Trans-women by birth are not physically woman.
  • But by soul and heart, they consider themselves women.
  • Tamil Nadu is the only state in India that has given a gender status to transsexual.

5. Describe briefly about the unorganized labor.

  • The unorganized sector workers include agricultural laborers, small and marginal farmers, forest workers, fisher fold, beedi rollers, garment markers, construction workers etc.
  • Having no fixed employer and no labor protective arrangements.
  • Unorganized women labor is another social issue.
  • Attempts are being made to improve the service conditions of the domestic helps.
  • Balawadis, anganwadis are being promoted to take care of children.
9th Civics

THE STATE GOVERNMENT

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. India consists of 28 states and 8 union territories.

2. The constitution head of the state government is chief minister.

3. The governor is appointed by president

4. The chief minister and other ministers are appointed by Governor

5. Ordinance are passed by Governor.

II.ANSWER IN BRIEF:

1. How many states and union territories in India?

There are 28 states and 7 union territories in India.

2. Which is the National capital territory?

Delhi is a national Capital territory.

3. How is council is Ministers are formed?

The council of ministers are formed by the chief minister.

They were appointed by the governor on the advice of chief minister

9th Civics

RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF CITIZEN

I CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER:

1. Through the 42 amendment enumerates the fundamental duties of the citizen.

2. The fundamental rights are classified under six heads.

3. India is a secular state.

4. Article 30 of the constitution grants rights to minorities to establish education institutions.

5. Article 19 of our constitution guarantees six freedom to all citizen

II Answer in brief

1. Write a short note on fundamental Rights?

A constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights becomes indispensable for keeping the democratic spirit of the state.

2. What is the freedom of religion?

Indian constitution observes an attitude of neutrality and impartiality towards all religion.

3. What is known as directive principles?

The constitution of Indian not only defines the rights and duties of citizens, but also provides certain directives to the government so that the people are assured of a progressive welfare state. These

directives are known as the ‘Directive Principles’.

4. Write a note on ‘writ’.

‘Writ’ means an order given by the court.

Answer in brief:

1) Explain the Fundamentals Duties.

•To respect the constitution National Flag or National anthem.

•To defend the country

•To protect the sovereignty , unity and integrity of india.

•To promote the spirit of common brotherhood amongst people of india.

•To preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.

•To safeguard public property.

•To protect and improve the natural environment.

•To develop the scientific temper and spirit of enquiry.

2 .Describe the Directive principles of state policy?

•The constitution of India not only defines the rights and duties of citizens but also provides certain directives to the government so that the people are assured of a progressive welfare state.

Directive in nature of ideals.

•Secure social, economic and political justice.

Directives shaping the policy.

•Secure uniform civil code.

•Provide free and compulsory primary education.

•Non justifiable rights of citizen right of both sexes to equal pay for equal work

9th Civics

THE UNION GOVERNMENT

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The parliament consists of two houses.

2. The prime minister is appointed by the president.

3. Lok sabha has 545 elected members.

4. Members of lok sabha are elected by direct election.

5. The upper house is known as rajya sabha.

6. The head of Indian republic and union is president.

7. Money bills cannot be introduced without the approval of president.

8. The union finance minister presents annual budget before the lok sabha.

9. The article of the constitution provides for a vice president article 63.

10. The president of India is Mr. Pranab Mukherjee.

11. The Supreme Court judge is appointed by the president.

12. Number of judges in Supreme Court is 31.

13. The Supreme Court judges retire at the age of 65.

14. Lok Adalat was introduced in 1987.

15. Head quarters of Supreme Court is in New Delhi.

II. Answer briefly:

1. What are the qualifications to become a member of the rajya sabha?

  • He or she must be a citizen of India.
  • Must not be less than 30 years of age.
  • Must possess such other qualifications may be prescribed by the parliament.
  • Must not be a member of lok sabha.
  • Must be a person with sound mind and financially solvent.
  • Must not hold any office of profit under any government.

2. How is the prime minister elected?

According to the constitution of India, the leader of the majority party or majority group in the lok sabha is appointed as prime minister.

Prime minister of India is appointed by the president of India.

3. What is a bicameral legislature?

  • Indian parliament consists of two houses called Rajya sabha and Lok sabha.
  • Since there are two houses in the parliament it is called bicameral legislature.
  • Bicameral legislature also refers to states having two houses namely the legislative assembly and legislative council. (eg. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana, and Uttar Pradesh have legislative council) .

4. Explain the term “lok sabha”.

  • Lok sabha is the house of people.
  • Its members are directly elected by the people of India.
  • It enjoys vast powers since its members are elected directly.
  • Hence the lower house of the parliament is called the lok sabha or house of the people.

5. What is Electoral College?

  • The electoral college consist of the elected members of the both houses of the parliament, the elected members of the states and elected members of the national capital territory of Delhi and Pondicherry.

6. Who are all appointed by the president?

  • The president appoints the prime minister and other members of the council of ministers.
  • The judges of supreme courts and high courts are also appointed by him.
  • The president appoints the heads of the election commission, the attorney general chair person, members of UPSC, heads of armed forces, etc.

7. When is the emergency power declared?

  • The president is empowered to declare emergency when there is a threat to security of India by war, external rebellion or during armed rebellion. It is called national emergency. (Art. 352)
  • If a government of a state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provision of the constitution he declares state emergency. (Art. 356)
  • If a financial stability or credit of India is threatened, financial emergency is declared. (Art. 360)

8. How is the vice president elected?

  • A person to become the vice president of India should possess all the qualifications that are required to become a president of India.
  • The vice president of India is elected by the members of the parliament.

9. What are the qualifications of the Supreme Court judge?

  • The person who could become the judge of the Supreme Court must possess the following qualification;
  • Must be a citizen of India.
  • Should have worked as a judge of a high court for at least 5 years.
  • Should have worked as an advocate of a high court for at least 10 years.

10. What is the original jurisdiction?

  • The cases which are brought directly in the first instance to the Supreme Court come under original jurisdiction. For example, the dispute between the government of India and one or more states.

11. What is judicial review?

  • The judiciary can declare a law unconstitutional.
  • This power of the judiciary is known as judicial review.
  • By judicial review, the Supreme Court can declare a law null and void when it is found against the constitution.

12. Write the function of the high court judge.

  • The two main judicial function of the high court are original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction.
  • The high court supervises the working of all subordinate courts.
  • The state high court is empowered to issue writs and orders in the enforcement of fundamental rights and also other purposes.

13. Explain the power of the appellate.

  • The Supreme Court hears appeals against the decisions of the high court.
  • It hears appeals in civil, criminal and constitutional cases.
  • The high court produces a certificate saying the case is fit to appeal in the Supreme Court.

III. Answer in a paragraph:

1. What are the powers and functions of the parliament?

  • The parliament consists of two houses called rajya sabha and lok sabha.
  • So it is a bicameral legislature.
  • It has absolute control over the finances of the nation.
  • It passes the union budget.
  • It has the power to amend any provision of the Indian constitution.
  • It can impeach the highest constitutional authorities.
  • The approval of the parliament is required to continue with the emergency promulgated by the president.

2. Explain the council of ministers.

a)The number of members of the council of ministers is not specified in the constitution.

  • The ministers are classified under three ranks.
  • They are cabinet ministers, ministers of state and deputy ministers.

a) Cabinet ministers:

  • The cabinet is the policy making body of the government.
  • It is a collective body. Decisions are taken either by consensus or majority.
  • Normally the cabinet ministers are assigned important portfolios such as finance home, external affairs and railways.

b) Ministers of state:

  • They are also in the charge of ministers or departments, but they do not participate in the meetings of the cabinet, unless invited to do so.

c) Deputy Ministers:

  • They assist either the ministers of cabinet or state in the performance of the duties entrusted to them.

3. Explain the powers of the president.

  • The powers of the president can be divided into two categories namely
  • Power in normal times and
  • Emergency powers.
  • In normal times, the president enjoys
  • Executive powers,
  • Legislative powers,
  • Financial powers,
  • Judicial powers,
  • Military powers and
  • Diplomatic powers.

(a) Executive powers

  • Laws passed by the parliament are promulgated with the president’s assent.
  • The president is authorized to make appointments.
  • The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces.

(b) Legislative powers

  • The president can summon, prorogue both the houses of parliament.
  • Lok sabha can be dissolved by him.
  • Inaugural address is given by him.
  • The combined sessions of the parliament will be addressed by him.

(c) Judicial powers

  • The president is not answerable to any court of law.
  • He can pardon or remit or suspend a sentence of punishment even by the court, a martial or death
  • sentences passed by a court.

(d) Financial powers

  • The constitution empowers the president to have control over the finances of the state.
  • Annual budget is presented with his approval, by the finance minister.
  • Contingency fund is at the disposal of the president.

(e) Emergency powers

  • The president is given the power to declare
  • national emergency
  • state emergency
  • financial emergency.

4. What are the functions of the vice president?

  • The vice president of India occupies the 2nd highest office in country.
  • No specific functions are attached to the office of the vice president.
  • The normal function of the vice president is to act as the ex-officio chairperson of rajya sabha.
  • If there occurs any vacancy in the office of the president due to death, resignation, removal or otherwise, the vice president acts as he president until a new president is elected.

5. Explain the powers and the functions of the Supreme Court?

a) Judicial functions:

  • The Supreme Court is the guardian of the constitution.
  • The two main judicial functions of the Supreme Court are original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction.

b) Original jurisdiction:

  • The cases which are brought directly in the first instance to the supreme court under original
  • jurisdiction.
  • The writs issued by the Supreme Court to enforce the fundamental rights are the
  • Habeas corpus,
  • Mandamus,
  • Prohibition,
  • Certiorari,
  • Quo -warranto.

c) Appellate jurisdiction:

  • The supreme courts hear appeals against the decision of the high court in civil, criminal and constitutional cases.
  • The high court certifies the case whether it is fit to appeal in the Supreme Court.

d) Administrative functions:

  • There is a chain of codes of different types to provide justice.
  • There are at present 24 high courts.
  • Below the high courts, there are the subordinate courts of different categories.

e) Judicial review:

  • Judicial review gives the power to the Supreme Court to declare a law as unconstitutional.
  • By this power the Supreme Court can declare a law null or void if it is found against the constitution.
  • Hence the Supreme Court is known as the guardian of the constitution.

6. Explain the role of high court judges?

  • As per the article 214 of the constitution, there shall be a high court in each state.
  • There may be a common high court for two or more states or union territory.
  • It consists of chief justice and other judges.
  • The high court enjoys original and appellate jurisdiction as the Supreme Court does.
  • The other courts have to follow the rules and regulations framed by the high court.
  • There is a bench of Chennai high court functioning in Madurai.