10th Indian Economy

INDIAN ECONOMY AFTER INDEPENDENCE

I. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

1. Five Year plan in India was borrowed from Soviet Russia

2. Eleventh Five Year Plan Period is 2007-2012

3. Chairman of Planning commission of India is Prime Minister of India

4. Planning Commission of India was setup in the year 1950

5. Nehru decided that India would be a Mixed Economy

6. Green Revolution was introduced in the year 1967

7. Bhoodan Movement was started by Acharya Vinobhabhave

8. Which year has a special significance in Indian Economy? 1991

9. The organization which is responsible for research and development in the area of Satellite and Communication is ISRO

10. As per 2001 census the literacy rate in India is 64.8%

II. Short answer:

1. Write any three objectives of Eleventh Five year plan.

Objectives of Eleventh Five year plan

  • To reduce the subsidies in power, fertilizer.
  • Promoting agricultural research.
  • To ensure environmental protection.
  • Larger employment opportunities.
  • To develop rural infrastructure.

2. Write a note on Green Revolution.

Green Revolution

Green revolution was introduced in the year 1967.

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) introduced high Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds

Increase the agricultural production with improved irrigation facilities.

3. What is Mixed Economy?

Mixed economy in which public and private sectors would co exists.

4. What is Multi National Corporation?

Multi-National Corporations (MNC) are business firms operating in several countries but centrally managed from one (home) country.

5. Write a note on cottage Industries.

Cottage industries are household industries depending on local market and production is of primitive methods. Example: – Coir industries.

6. Write a note on Liberalization

Liberalization means movement towards a free market system.

Withdrawal of regulation and restrictions.

Private sectors are encouraged to enter into core industries.

7. What is Privatization?

Privatization means transforming all economic activities from public sector to private sector. It refers to the setting up of private units in public utility services.

8. What do you mean by Globalization?

Globalization means country draw raw materials from any source of the world and manufacture goods and services. Finished goods find a place in global market is the linkage of nation’s markets with global markets.

III. Detail:

1. Write down the Objectives of Eleventh Five year plan.

Objectives Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012):-

Increasing the public investment in irrigation, rural electrification and rural roads.

  • To reduce the subsidies in power, fertilizer.
  • Promoting agricultural research.
  • To ensure environmental protection.
  • Larger employment opportunities.
  • To develop rural infrastructure.
  • To abolish poverty.
  • To reduce the dropout rate in primary schools

2. Explain Green Revolution.

  • Green revolution was introduced in the year 1967.
  • The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) introduced high Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds to increase the agricultural production with improved irrigation facilities.

Land Reforms:-

  • The government initiated land reform measures like land ceiling and tenancy legislation.
  • The Bhoodhan movement started by Vinobhavbhave deserves a mention.
  • Through the Bhoodhan movement millions of acres of land were received from the landlords and distributed to the landless poor.

High Yielding Variety seeds program:-

  • The green revolution largely means increasing production by the use of High Yielding Variety seeds.
  • This enabled India to achieve self-sufficiency in food grain production.
  • The credit goes to Indian Council of Agriculture Research in India particularly Ludhiana, Pantnagar (UP) and Coimbatore.

3. Explain Economic Reforms of 1991.

Economic Reforms of 1991:-

  • The year 1991 has a special significance in the Indian economy.
  • The economic reforms aimed at rapid industrialization.

Multi-National Corporations (MNC):-

  • Multi-National corporations (MNC) are business firms operating in several countries but centrally managed from one (home) country.

Cottage industries:-

  • Cottage industries are household industries depending on local market and production is of primitive methods. Example: – Coir industries.

Liberalization:-

  • Liberalization means movement towards a free market system.
  • Withdrawal of regulation and restrictions.
  • Private sectors are encouraged to enter into core industries.

Privatization:-

  • Privatization means transforming all economic activities from public sector to private sector. It refers to the setting up of private units in public utility services.

Globalization:-

  • Globalization means country draw raw materials from any source of the world and manufacture goods and services. Finished goods find a place in global market is the linkage of nation’s markets with global markets.

4. Explain the various Power Programs in Tamil Nadu

The important power stations in Tamil nadu are listed below:-

Thermal power:-

Thermal power stations are in Ennore, Tuticorin, Mettur, Basin Bridge and Neyveli.

Hydel power:-

Hydel power stations are in Mettur, Kundah, Periyar Dam, Kothayar Dam, Pykara, Singara and Moyar.

Atomic Energy:-

Atomic power stations are in Kalpakkam and Koodangulam.

Wind Energy:-

It is a non-conventional form of energy. The wind mills are situated in Coimbatore, Kanyakumari, Tuticorin, Ramanathapuram and Tirunelveli.

Biomass Energy:-

This is another kind of non-conventional energy. This kind of electricity is produced in Namakkal and Dharmapuri Districts.

10th Indian Economy

National Income

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. National Income is otherwise called Gross National Product

2. National income of a country can be calculated by 3 methods

3. Net National Product = GNP – Depreciation

4. India’s Per capita income is 950 dollars

5. Primary sector consists of Agriculture

6. National Income is a measure of Total value of goods & services

7. Expenditure method estimates national income from the Savings side

8. Income method sums all forms of Income

9. Percapita Income is an indicator of Living Standard of people

10. Primary sector contribution to national income in India is 15.8%

II. Write short notes on the following:

1. Define National income.

Definition of National Income

“National Income is a measure of the total value of goods and services produced by an economy over a period of time, normally a year”. Commonly National Income is called as Gross National Product or National Dividend.

2. How you arrive at NNP?

Net National Product (NNP)

Net National Product is arrived by making some adjustment with regard to depreciation. That is we arrive the NNP by deducting the value of depreciation from Gross National Products (GNP)

NNP= GNP (-) Depreciation

3. Write a note on Income method.

In this method, the Income and Payments received by all the people in the country are calculated.

4. What is Percapita Income?

Percapita Income (PCI)

Percapita Income is an indicator to show the living standard of people in a country.

It is obtained by dividing the national income by the population of a country.

Percapita Income = National Income / Population

5. Write any two needs for the study of National Income

Need for the study of National Income:-

  • To measure the size of the economy and economic performance.
  • To measure the production of goods and services.
  • To trace the trend of the economic growth of our country in relation other countries.

6. What is tertiary sector?

Tertiary sector is service sector

Tertiary sector includes trade, hotel, industry, transport, storage, communication, finance, insurance, real estate and social services.

7. What is Laissez – faire?

Laissez-faire means non-intervention by the government.

The government was more or less a police state.

Government functions catering to the needs of the people.

8. Write a note on the Protective functions of modern welfare state.

Protective functions:-

  • Economic development can be achieved only if there is peace in the state.
  • Government is to maintain law and order.
  • Protecting the people from external aggression and internal disorder.

9. Define Gross Domestic Product.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Gross Domestic Product is the total value of output (goods and services) produced by the factors of production within the geographical boundaries of the country.

10. What is net Domestic Product?

Net Domestic Product (NDP)

Net Domestic Product is part of Gross Domestic product. Net Domestic Product is obtained from the Gross Domestic Product by deducting the quantum of tear and wear expenses (depreciation).

III. Write in a paragraph:

1. Explain two basic concepts of National Income.

Net National Product (NNP):-

Net National Product is arrived by making some adjustment with regard to depreciation. That is, we arrive NNP by deducting the value of depreciation from Gross Domestic Product.

NNP = GNP (-) Depreciation

Gross Domestic Product (GDP):-

Gross Domestic Product is the total value of output (goods and services) produced by the factor of production within the geographical boundaries of the country.

Percapita Income (PCI):-

Percapita Income is an indicator to show the living standard of people in a country.

It is obtained by dividing the National Income by the population of a country.

Percapita Income = National Income/Population

2. Explain the need for the study of National Income.

Need for the study of National Income:-

  • To measure the size of the economy and economic performance.
  • To measure the production of goods and services .
  • To trace the trend of the economic growth of our country in relation other countries.
  • To know the contribution of primary, secondary and tertiary sector in the National Income.
  • To help Government, to formulate development plans and policies to increase economic growth.

3. Explain the methods of calculating National Income.

Method of calculating National Income:-

Product method:-

In this method the total value of all goods and services produced in a country is taken into account.

Income method:-

In this method, the income and payments received by all the people in the country are calculated.

Expenditure method:-

In this method we add up the expenditure of all people on consumer goods, investment and saving.

4 Write about the Functions of Modern Welfare State.

Functions of Modern welfare state:-

Protective functions:-

Economic development can be achieved only if there is peace in the state.

Government is to maintain law and order.

Protecting the people from external aggression and internal disorder.

The Administrative functions:-

The three important wings of the state are legislature, Executive and Judiciary.

Social Security functions:-

The government undertakes social security measures by offering relief to the poor, sick and the unemployed.

Economic functions:-

The government takes various measures to improve agriculture and develop trade and industry.

10th Civics

CONSUMER RIGHTS

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. A person one who gives final utility to a commodity is Consumer

2. The customer are exploited by the Traders

3. The Right to information Act was passed by the Parliament on 12th October 2005

4. World consumer day is celebrated on March 15

5. The Magna Carta of consumers COPRA

6. One of the planning schemes to create awareness among the consumers Trade fair

II. Answer the following in brief:

1. How are the customers exploited? Mention any two forms

  • The consumers are exploited by manufacturers and traders in different ways.
  • The goods being sold in the market are sometimes not measured or weighed correctly.
  • The goods sold are sometimes of sub-standard quality.

2. Write a brief note on the birth of COPRA.

Birth of “COPRA”

The right to redress lead to the passing of the Consumer Protection Act(COPRA) in 1986 in India which has been defined as the Magna Carta of Consumers.

3. Write any two measures taken by the Government of Tamil Nadu to protect the consumers against exploitation.

  • Providing consumer education through Women Self Help Groups.
  • Residents Welfare Associations in urban areas.
  • Generating awareness through sectoral workshops & seminars.
  • Publication and distribution of monthly magazine under the caption. “Tamil Nadu Nugarvor Kavasam”.

III. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. Write a paragraph on the rights of consumers.

Birth of “Copra”

The right to redress lead to the passing of the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA) in 1986 in India which has been defined as the Magna Carta of consumers.

Rights of Consumers

  • The consumers have the right to be protected against marketing of goods and services, which are hazardous to life and property.
  • The quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods; should be properly informed.
  • Assurance of access to goods and services at competitive price.
  • The consumer has the right to be assured of satisfactory quality and service at a fair price.
  • They seek redressal against unfair trade practices and right to fair settlement of the genuine grievances.
  • The right of Information Act was passed by the parliament on 12th Oct, 2005 to enable to access information from public bodies.

2. What are the measures taken by the Government of Tamil Nadu to protect the consumers?

Measures taken by the Government of Tamil Nadu to protect the consumers.

  • Providing consumer education through Women Self Help Groups.
  • Residents Welfare Associations in Urban areas.
  • Generating awareness through sectoral workshops and seminars.
  • Publication and distribution of monthly magazine under the caption “Tamil Nadu Nugarvorkavasam”.
  • Propagating awareness through radio/Television media and short video films.

The motto of developing citizen as a “valuable consumer” in providing consumer education to general public.

10th Civics

UNITY IN DIVERSITY

I. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

1. The ancient religion of our country is Vedic region

2. Recognised official languages of India 22

3. Language is the means of Communication

4. Thembavani is related to Christianity

5. Buddha Poornima is celebrated by the Buddhist

6. They play an important part in fostering unity and integration Music and dance

II. Answer the following in brief:

1. Why is India called the “Museum of human race”?

  • India has a population of more than hundred Crores made up of diverse ethnic groups, castes, religions, speaking hundreds of languages.
  • It had made it both a museum and a laboratory for the study of a man. Hence India is rightly called the “Museum of human race”.

2. Name some of the religions of India.

  • Vedic religion
  • Christianity
  • Zoroastrianism
  • Muslim
  • Buddhism
  • Jainism
  • Sikhism

3. How do our customs, habits and heritage help to maintain unity?

The Indian heritage advocates hospitality, charity, friendship, love, unselfishness, dharma, proper conduct, humility, truth, peace, mercy, spiritual feelings, respect for parents and elders and tolerance.

This is how out customs, habits and heritage help to maintain unity.

4. What do you know about art and architecture of India?

Art and Architecture

  • India was famous for its architectural unique
  • The paintings at Ajantha and Ellora are world famous.
  • The Gandhara Art and Sculpture speaks the excellence of India’s greatness in this field.
  • Temple Architecture is the best among Indian building architecture.

5. Give a brief note on Indian Music and Dance.

Music and Dance

  • The Carnatic style and Hindustani music is loved and learned by many.
  • Bharathanatiya, Kuchipudi, Kathak,Manipur and Oddissi are some of the famous dances in India.
  • In many respects the rich and varied Indian Music and Dance play an important role in fostering unity and integration.
  •  

III. Detail:

1. Explain how do language and literature help to maintain unity in diversity.

Language

  • People of India speak different languages like Tamil, Malayalam, Hindi, Urdu and many foreign languages are spoken by its people.
  • Almost, in India about 845 languages are spoken. Out of these 22 are recognized as the official language.
  • Hindi is the national language of India.
  • English is being used as the concurrent-language.
  • Language is the means of communication, the instruments of growth, development and common brotherhood, Literature
  • The growth of Indian languages led to Indian literature to reach its zenith.
  • Languages have helped the growth of thoughts and philosophy.
  • The Ramayana and Mahabharata are the two great epics of India.
  • Bhagavad-Gita is the holy book of Hindus.
  • Thembavani written by Veeramamunivar is related to Christianity.

2. Write a paragraph on National Integration.

National Integration

  • In spite of diversity in physical features, habits, religious faiths, languages, food and dress make the people look different but the heritage of India binds them together; Humanism, brotherhood, friendship make the Indians live in unity and harmony.
  • The feeling and thought that all are the sons of Bharath, all are Indians.
  • National flag, and National anthem, United we live divided we fall safeguard National Integration.
  • This unity of India achieved through the ages right from the days of the Indus culture.
10th Civics

DEMOCRACY

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The most popular form of Government in modern days Democracy

2. Direct Democracy existed in ancient Greece

3. Telugu Desam is a Regional party

4. If two parties exist in a country, it is called Bi-party system

5. The opposition party leader will be given the status of a Cabinet Minister

6. To contest an election a person should be above the age of 25

7. The body of the elected representatives at the Central level is known as Parliament

8. The status of election commissioner is equivalent to that of the Supreme Court Judge

9. The election process in the state level is supervised by Chief Electoral Officer

10. Election Commission is situated at New Delhi

II. Answer the following in brief:

1. Give Abraham Lincoln’s definition of Democracy.

According to Abraham Lincoln, “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.

2. What are National Parties?

National Parties

A party recognized by the Election Commission, that secures at least six percent of the total votes in Lok Sabha election in four or more states, then it is called National Party. Eg: Congress, BJP.

3. What is a Political Party?

A political party is an organized association of people who come together on a common platform with the objective of winning political power. It is called as political parties.

4. Mention the functions of the political parties.

Functions of the Political Parties

  • Formulation of General policies.
  • Contesting elections
  • Educating the masses
  • To conduct and criticize the government
  • Playing the role of an intermediary body between the government and the people.
  • Integrative policy.

5. Write the advantages of Single Party system

Advantages of the Single Party Rule

  • During the periods of emergency could function more efficiently and quickly to set matters right.
  • Decisions could be taken quickly and Expenditure could also be controlled.
  • It promotes greater national identity.

6. Give a brief note on the functions of the Election Commission.

Functions of the Election Commission

  • It gives recognition to the political parties.
  • It allots symbol for the parties as well as independent candidates.
  • It announces the dates of election and final results.

III. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. Explain the types and importance of democracy.

Democracy can be classified into two

* Direct Democracy and

* Indirect Democracy.

Direct Democracy:-

  • People directly participate in the functioning of the government.
  • Existed in Ancient Greece and Rome.

Indirect Democracy:-

  • The representatives are duly elected by the people.
  • They form and run the government.
  • Most of the countries in the world follow indirect democracy.

Importance of Democracy:-

People have the freedom to choose their representatives.

  • It ensures treating people with dignity.
  • People are guaranteed fundamental rights like the right to life and liberty.
  • Democratic government should Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.

2. Mention the types of election and explain them.

Types of Elections in India

  1. Direct Election
  2. Indirect Election
  3. By-Elections
  4. Mid-term poll

Direct Election

  • The citizens elect the representatives through votes.
  • Members of the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies are elected in this manner.

Indirect Elections

  • The elected representatives are the voters here.
  • The members of the Rajya Sabha, the President and Vice-President are elected in this manner.

By-Elections

  • By-Elections held when an elected candidate from a constituency dies or resigns elections will be held. Such Elections are called by-elections.

Mid-term polls

  • Parliament or the state legislatures do not function for the whole period of five years for various reasons.
  • Then they are dissolved, elections are held.
  • These elections are called the mid-term polls.

3. Explain the role of Opposition party in a democracy.

The party which gets majority seats in the Lok Sabha next to the ruling party is called the opposition party.

Role of Opposition parties

  • To check the government from becoming authoritarian.
  • The main duty of the opposition party is to criticize the policies of the government.
  • Attract the attention of the press and report their criticism of the government.
  • The opposition parties have the right to check the expenditure.
  • The criticisms of these parties make the ruling party correct its actions.
10th Civics

India and World Peace

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. India is a country with an unbounded faith in Peace

2. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru’s five principles of peace are named as Pancha Sheel

3. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963

4. India brought a resolution in the UN General Assembly in favour of disarmament in 1956

5. Apartheid was abolished in 1990

6. The first Secretary General of SAARC was Ashan

II. Answer the following in brief

1. Mention the important aspects of India’s policy for promoting peace.

The important aspects of India’s policy for promoting peace

  • Promoter of world peace
  • Panchasheel
  • Dis-Armament and Nuclear Weapons
  • A Great Helper
  • Policy of Non-alignment
  • India-a dead enemy of oppression and injustice
  • A Great supporter of the UNO
  • Ending of Apartheid

2. Why is world peace an essential one?

Economic development of the nations can be achieved only through world peace.

World peace is essential not only for the economic development of India but also for all the developing countries of the world.

3. What are the five principles of the Pancha Sheel?

The five principles of the Pancha Sheel

  1. Each country should respect the territorial integrity and sovereignty of others.
  2. No country should attack any other country.
  3. No one should try to interfere in the internal affairs of others.
  4. All country shall strive for equality and mutual benefit.
  5. Every country should try to follow the policy of peaceful coexistence.

4. Write a note on the policy of APARTHEID.

  • Apartheid- Policy of racial discrimination followed in South Africa.
  • The whites did not give equal rights to the native Africans.
  • India has raised this issue for the first time in the UN General Assembly in 1946.
  • Policy of Apartheid has been abolished in 1990.

5. Name the areas identified by the SAARC countries for Mutual Cooperation.

The areas identified by the SAARC countries for Mutual Cooperation

  • Transportation
  • Postal service
  • Tourism
  • Shipping
  • Meteorology
  • Health
  • Agriculture
  • Rural reconstruction and
  • Tele communication.

6. India has rendered whole hearted support to the UNO – Justify.

  • India has rendered whole-hearted support to the United Nations to bring World peace.
  • It tried to solve many problems by giving full support to the UNO.

III. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. Write a paragraph about Pancha Sheel and the policy of Non-Alignment.

Pancha Sheel

India is called “A Great Peace Maker”. Jawaharlal Nehru laid these five principles known as Pancha Sheel.

  1. Each country should respect the territorial integrity and sovereignty of others.
  2. No country should attack any other country.
  3. No one should try to interfere in the internal affairs of others.
  4. All country shall strive for equality and mutual benefit.
  5. Every country should try to follow the policy of peaceful coexistence.

Policy of Non-alignment

After Second World War the world was divided into two blocs the American Bloc and the Russian Bloc.

India has not joined either of these two blocs.

India tries to remove difference contributing towards the World Peace.

2. Write a short note on SAARC.

  • The South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation(SAARC)
  • India took the initiative to form SAARC to maintain regional peace.
  • SAARC, S first meeting was held at Dacca in Bangladesh on Dec 7, 1985.
  • Ashan of Bangladesh was the first Secretary General of SAARC.
  • Member countries are Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Srilanka.
  • On April 3, 2007 Afghanistan became its 8th member.

The areas identified by the SAARC countries for Mutual Cooperation

  • Promoter of world peace, Panchasheel
  • Dis-Armament and Nuclear Weapons
  • A Great Helper
  • Policy of Non-alignment
  • India-a dead enemy of oppression and injustice
  • A Great supporter of the UNO

Ending of Apartheid

10th Geography

Remote Sensing

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Maps created by using aerial photographs are called ___ maps Ortho photo

2. The Object under study is known as _________ Target

3. The device to detect the Electro Magnetic Radiation is _____ Sensor

II. Match the following

1. Ground Survey  Many Months
2. Remote Sensing  Short span of time
3. Hot air balloon  French Map makers
4. Airplanes  Systematic aerial images
5. TIROS  USA

II. Short answers:

1. What is meant by remote sensing?

Remote – far away

Sensing – getting information

Remote Sensing can be defined as the collection of data about an object from a distance.

2. What are the disadvantages of ground survey?

The disadvantages of ground survey

Ground survey of resources is hindered by dense forests, rugged terrain, sandy deserts and unpredictable weather.

It takes many months to study.

3. Mention the basic components of remote sensing.

The four basic components of a remote sensing system are

  1. Target,
  2. Energy source,
  3. Transmission path and
  4. a Sensor.

4. Define GIS.

Geographical Information System (GIS) is a systematic integration of Computer Hardware, Software and Spatial Data, for capturing, storing, displaying, updating, manipulating and analyzing all forms of geographically referenced data.

5. Mention any two applications of GIS.

  • Exploration and mining companies use GIS to find prospective areas for exploration and mining.
  • Power Companies use GIS to monitor and analyse the electricity load for particular area.
  • Transport companies use GIS to locate shortest routes for delivering goods and to save time.

6. What are the uses of GPS?

The uses of GPS

  • Surveying, Map-making, Navigation the main civilian use of GPS.
  • Navigation, Target tracking, Missile Search and rescue are the main military use of GPS.
  • GPS a useful tool for commerce, scientific uses, tracking and surveillance.
  • Farmers, surveyors, geologists perform their work more efficiently, safely, economically.

IV. Answer in a paragraph:

1. Write about Remote Sensing Technology.

Remote sensing can be defined as the collection of data about an object from a distance.

  • Geographers use the remote sensing as a tool to monitor or measure phenomena on the Earth’s lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
  • Remote sensing is done with the help of mechanical devices known as sensors.These sensors are positioned in helicopters, planes and satellites.
  • Sensors record electromagnetic energy that is reflected back and radiated from the object on the earth surface. Hence, the most effective technology to gather information on any part of the earth within a short span of time.

2. Explain the various components of remote sensing.

Components of Remote sensing:-

The four basic components of Remote sensing system are target, energy source, transmission path and a sensor.

The target is an object or material that is being imaged. Work together to measure and record information about the target.

Without physical contact.

The energy source provides electromagnetic energy to the target.

Classified into two

  • Passive System (that is sun, irradiance from earth’s materials)
  • Active System (that is energy sources such as radar).
  • The electromagnetic radiation interacts with the target, depending on the properties of the target.
  • Transmit information from the target to the sensor.
  • Sensor is a device to detect the Electro Magnetic Radiation can be classified on the basis of energy received into Passive sensors and Active sensors.
  • Passive sensors detect natural radiation that is emitted or reflected by the object. For eg: Cameras
  • Active sensors transmit their own signal and measure the energy that is reflected from the target for example Radar.

3. Explain the process involves in remote sensing technology

Processes involved in Remote Sensing:-

Sun is a Energy Source (A) first requirement which provides electromagnetic energy to the target of things.

Sunrays and Atmosphere (B) as the energy travels from its source to the target interact with, the atmosphere second time from the target to the sensor.

Sunrays and Objects on Earth (C) energy interacts with the target depending on the properties of both the target and the radiation.

Recording of Energy by the Sensor (D) after energy emitted from the target, the sensor collects and records the electromagnetic radiation.

Transmission, Reception and Processing (E) the energy recorded by the sensor has to be transmitted, and processed into an image (hardcopy and/or digital).

Interpretation and Analysis (F) the processed image is interpreted, to extract information about the target which was illuminated.

Application (G) the final process is achieved by applying the extracted information for better understanding.

4. What are the advantages of remote sensing?

Advantages of Remote Sensing:-

  • This system provides a synoptic view of a wide area in a single frame.
  • Remote sensing systems detect features that cannot be reached by human vision.
  • Cheaper and rapid method of acquiring up to-date and continuous information.
  • Helps the planners for formulating policies and programs.

Enable the cartographers to prepare thematic maps like geological maps, soil maps.

10th Geography

India – Trade, Transport and Communication

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Trade carried on within the domestic territory of a country is known as ___ trade. Internal

2. Trade blocs are created to make the ___ trade easier. Multi-Lateral

3. Cost efficient and most popular mode of transport in our country is __ Roadways

4. The headquarters of Indian Railways is Delhi

5. The costliest and most modern means of transport is Air Transport

II. Match the following

1. Village Road  (Village) Panchayat
2. District Road  Corporations
3. Central Railways  Mumbai
4. Southern Railways  Chennai
5. Northern Railways  Delhi

IV. Short answers

1. What is trade? What are the types of trade?

Trade is an act or process of buying, selling or exchanging goods and services.

The types of trade are internal trade and International trade.

2. State the highlights of India’s foreign trade policy since 2004.

The highlights of India’s foreign trade policy since 2004.

  • Merchandise trade has been doubled.
  • Thrust is given from employment generation, especially in semiurban and rural areas.
  • Trade procedure is simplified and transaction cost is redcued.
  • Special focus is given to make India a global hub.
  • A new scheme called Vishesh Krishi Upaj Yojna has been introduced to boost exports of fruits, vegetables, flowers and minor forest products.

3. Trade, Transport and Communication stand complementary to each other. How?

Growth of trade leads to economic prosperity of a nation. But, trade growth depends on well-developed market, advanced transport and communication system.

4. What is the significance of border roads?

The significance of border roads

  • Constructed and maintained by Border Roads Organisation (BRO) which was set up in 1960 by the Government of India.
  • BRO is regarded as a symbol of nation building, national integration and an inseparable component in maintaining the security of the country.

5. Brief how physiographic plays a role in the distribution of Railway networks in India.

The Physiographic plays a role in the distribution of Railway networks in India.

  • The Himalayan region has rugged terrain and so it is very difficult to lay railway tracks along the steep slopes.
  • Further, the condition in west Rajasthan, frequent flood in Brahmaputra valley thick forest and rough terrain.
  • The northern plains of India is a flat land. Hence, it has a dense network of railways.
  • Peninsular India is a plateau region with an undulated terrain, hence it has a moderate railway network.

6. Write a note on sub-urban railway.

Sub Urban Railway:-

  • Cities in India such as Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Delhi have separate tracks for the sub urban network.
  • Sub urban trains connect the commuters of sub urban areas to the urban centres.
  • They are mostly Electric Multiple Units (EMU).

7. State the merits of pipeline transport.

Advantages of Pipeline Transport:-

  • Pipeline can be laid through difficult terrain as well as under water.
  • Initial cost of laying pipeline is high cost for maintenance and operation is low.
  • Steady supply and minimizes transshipment losses and delays.
  • Pipeline operation involves very low consumption of energy.

8. Mention the important pipeline networks in our country.

There are three important pipeline network in the country:-

  • From oil fields in upper Assam to Kanpur in Uttarpradesh.
  • From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab.
  • Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in uttarpradesh.

9. What are the advantages of communication network?

Advantages of Communication Network:-

  • Communication network has enhanced the efficiency of communication.
  • Leads to enormous growth of trade.
  • Helps the government to tackle various socio-economic problems in the society.
  • Improves the quality of human life.
  • Opens the door to the information age.
  • Promotes Edusat programs.

IV, Answer in a paragraph:

1. Explain India’s trade with reference to her major exports and imports.

India’s trade with reference to her major exports and imports.

Trade is an act or process of buying, selling or exchanging goods and service.

They are internal and international trade

International trade is sub divided into two types such as

1.Bilateral trade

2.Mutilateral trade

Major Export from India

Ores and minerals

Iron ore, Coal, Manganese, Mica, Bauxite

Leather products

Wallets, purses, pouches, handbags, belts, footwear, gloves.

Engineering goods

Machinery, iron and steel, electronic goods, computer software.

Textiles and handicrafts

Readymade garments, cotton, yarn and zari goods.

Major imports of India

Machineries like transport equipment, machine tools, non-electrical machineries.

Pharmaceutical products, Petroleum, fertilizers and newsprints.

2. Classify the Indian roads and Explain.

  • The India Roads are cost efficient and the most popular dominant modes of transport.
  • Road network in India is the second longest in the world accounting for 3.314 million km.
  • Village roads link different villages with the town and it is maintained by village panchayat roads run to a length of 26,50,000kms
  • District Roads links the towns with the district headquarters. They are maintained by the Corporations and Municipalities. District roads length of 4,67,763kms.
  • State Highways links the state capitals with the different district headquarters.
  • constructed and maintained by the State Public Department runs to a length of 1,31,899kms. Eg: Cuddalore-Chittor Road.
  • National Highways links the state capitals with national capital. They are maintained by the Central Public Works Department runs to a length of 70,548kms. For example NH 47.

3. Explain the means of Personal Communication in India.

The means of Personal Communication in India:

  • Personal Communication refers to exchanging between two persons.
  • India Postal Service made its beginning in 1857 and it is the largest network in the world.
  • First class mail includes postcards, inland letters and envelopes.
  • Second class mail includes book packets, registered newspaper.
  • Telegram is a form of written communication by which messages can be sent quickly to distant places.
  • Telephone is a form of oral communication.
  • Mobile phones are very popular in today’s world as it provides an access to the user and receiver at any time, at anywhere.
  • Short Message Services (SMS) is a method by which message can be one cell phone to another.
  • Fax is an electronic device that sends the exact copy of any matter, document to another fax machine to the receiving end.
10th Geography

Environmental Issues

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Natural Nutrient enrichment of streams and lakes is Eutrophication

2. The main cause for natural air pollution Volcanic eruption

3. Contamination of air is called Air pollution

II. Answer the following questions:

1. What is Water pollution?

Water pollution is any chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses or lives in it.

2. List out the major Air pollutants.

The source of pollutants is both natural and man-made.

Volcanic eruptions, wind erosion, are the natural causes of air pollution.

The man-made reasons for air pollution are vehicular emission, thermal power plants, industries and refineries.

3. What is Noise pollution?

Human or machine created sound that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life is known as noise pollution.

4. What are the major causes of water pollution?

The major causes of water pollution

The first are disease-causing agents. These are bacteria, viruses, protozoa and parasitic worms.

Second pollutant is oxygen demanding bacteria. This causes other organisms in the water such as fish to die.

The third class of water pollutants is water soluble inorganic pollutants such as acids, salts and toxic metals.

5. What is bio diversity?

Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem.

Acquired land for mining affects biodiversity.

Environmental changes due to mining and dam constructions cause extinctions.

6. How pollution is caused due to bio-medical waste?

Pollution due to biomedical waste is likely to spread diseases dangerous to life.

Eg. The radiation of radio therapy machine cobalt-60 which was sent scarpyard caused death of a scarpyard worker in Delhi hospital.

7 What is meant by pollution due to e-waste?

India produces about 3,80,000 tonnes of e-waste generated out of television sets, mobile phones, computers, refrigerators and printers. This is great threat for human as it is non-degradable

III. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. What are the effects of acid rain?

The effects of acid rain

  • Acid rains killed more than 70% of corals in Lakshadweep and Andaman islands.
  • Microscopic organisms such as plankton may not survive the food chain will be affected.
  • If ocean temperature increases, growth of coral reefs will be affected.
  • Other ecosystems such as forests and desert will also be harmed.
  • Loss of bio-diversity and extinction of rare species will occur.
  • They also change the acidity level of the soil by leaching crucial nutrients. Thus it affects forest vegetation.
  • Corals control carbon-di-oxide by turning CO2 in water to limestone shell.

2. What is smog? What are the effects of smog?

  • Smog is a combination of the words smoke and fog.
  • It causes a smoky dark atmosphere.
  • It decreases visibility, and creates gaze throughout the area.

Major producers

Automobiles, fires, waste treatment, oil production, industrial solutions, paints and coatings.

The effects of smog:-

  • Smog creates harmful health hazards like lung failure and pneumonia.
  • Smog is not only a city problem wind carry smog away from urban areas and harm other areas too.
  • Agriculture is also affected by smog.

3. Give a brief note on Acid rain.

Acid rain:-

  • Acid rain was first discovered in 1852 in London.
  • Caused by gases given out by automobiles or coal burning by power plants.
  • The gases that cause the acid rain is sulphur-di-oxide and nitrogen oxides.
  • These pollutants combine with water vapour in the presence of sunlight and oxygen and form dilute sulphuric and nitric acids.
  • When these mixture precipitates from the atmosphere, it is called as acid rain.
  • Acid rain falls down to the earth in all forms of precipitation can harm destroy both natural ecosystems and man-made products.
  • Acid rains, killed more than 70% of corals in Lakshadweep and Andaman islands.
10th Geography

INDIA – INDUSTRIES

I. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

1. Cotton textile industry is  agro based

2. Manchester of India is Mumbai

3. Tata Iron and Steel industry is located at Jamshedpur

4. Chota Nagpur Plateau is noted for Mineral resource

5. The city known as Electronic Capital is Bangalore

II. MATCH THE FOLLOWING

1. Jute industry  West Bengal
2. Cotton industry  Mumbai
3. Software Industry  Bangalore
4. Tata Iron and Steel Industry  Jamshedpur
5. Sugar bowl of India  Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

IV. Short answers:

1. Define manufacturing.

Manufacturing is defined as the process of converting raw materials into finished products.

Eg. iron ore into iron then into machinery

2. Name the factors that determine location of an industry.

The location of an industry is determined by raw material, power, transport, man power, water, market and government policies.

3. What are agro based industries? Give examples.

Agro based industries:-

These industries use agricultural products as their basic raw material. For example, Cotton textile industry, jute industry, sugar industry etc.

4. Name any five software centers.

Main centers are Chennai, Coimbatore, Thiruvananthapuram, Bangalore, Mysore, Hyderabad, Vishakhapatnam, Mumbai, Pune, Bhubaneswar, Indore, Gandhinagar, Jaipur, Kolkata, Noida, Mohali and Srinagar.

5. What are the byproducts of the Jute industry?

Jute products include gunny bags, canvas, pack sheets, jute webs, Hessians, carpets, cordage.

V. detail:

1. Write an account of Iron and Steel industries of India.

Account of iron and steel industries of India

  • Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) was set up at Jamshedpur in 1907 now it is called Tata Steel limited. It is oldest and largest integrated iron and steel plant in India. The company produces pig iron and steel.
  • Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO) was set up at Burnpur in 1919. Company produces pig iron and crude steel control was taken over by SAIL.
  • Visveshwaraya Iron and Steel limited (VISL) set up in 1923 at Bhadravati in Karnataka. It’s major products are alloy and special steel.
  • The Vijayanagar steel plant has been set up Tornagai in Karnataka.
  • The Salem Steel Plant located at Salem in Tamil Nadu in 1982.
  • Major producers of the world class stainless steel.
  • The Vishakhapatnam Steel Plant came into operation in 1992. And first plant in the shore region. It is a major export oriented steel plant.

2. Describe the factors encouraging cotton textile industry in Mumbai.

The following factors favour the cotton textile industries in Mumbai:

  • Location of port facilities for the export of finished goods.
  • Well connected through rail and road links with cotton growing areas.
  • Humid coastal climate favours yarning.
  • Availability of Capital goods and finance.
  • Availability of man power.

3 Give an account of Software industry in India.

  • An account of software industry in India
  • It has emerged as a major industry.
  • The main reason due to the availability of cheap and skilled young software professionals in our country.
  • “Electronic Parks” is established different parts of our country.
  • The main centers are Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Pune, Mohali and Srinagar.
  • At present there are more than 500 Software firms in the country.
  • Expected to generate a total employment of around six million.
  • Today the software industry exports software to nearly 95 countries.
  • The Government has also played a vital role in the development of software industry.
  • It has contributed 9% of GDP for India national income