The First World War A.D. 1914 – A.D. 1918

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I. Choose the correct answer:

1. “Germany alone was competent to rule the whole world” said by Kaiser William II

2. Kaiser William II stationed a fleet at  Heligoland

3. France wanted to get back Alsace and Loraine

4. Austrian Crown prince was Francis Ferdinand

5. Austria declared war on Serbia on 28th July 1914

6. Germany invaded France by crossing Belgium

7. Turkey extended her support to the Central powers

8. This expedition was an utter failure for the British Dardanelles expedition

9. The famous American merchant ship sunk by Germany Lusitania

10. In Russia the Czarist government was over thrown by Lenin

11. German battle cruiser was destroyed in the battle of Dogger bank

12. Germany sued for peace on November 11, 1918

13. The First World war came to an end by the Paris Peace Conference

14. The League of Nations was officially founded in January 20, 1920

II. Match the following:

1. Clemenceau  France
2. Orlando  Italy
3. Lloyd George  Britain
4. Woodrow Wilson  America
5. Kaiser William II  Germany
1. Treaty of Versailles  Germany
2. Treaty of Trianon  Hungary
3. Treaty of Neuilly  Bulgaria
4. Treaty of Sevres  Turkey
5. Treaty of Germaine  Austria

III. Answer the following briefly:

1. Why did Germany need colonies?

Germany needed colonies not only as a sign of her world importance but also for her growing population.

2. Write a note on Moroccan problem.

Morocco problem

  • France invaded morocco but it was opposed by Kaiser William’s II
  • He wants to declare morocco as an international colony
  • He sent two war ships “berlin and panther”
  • When Britain intervened Germany withdrew its warships and wanted to have revenge Britain.

3. What was the immediate cause of the First World War?

The immediate cause of the First World War

  • In June 28, 1914 Austrian crown prince Francis Ferdinand and his wife Isabella were assassinated by a Serbian lad.
  • Austria sent an ultimatum to Serbia with humiliating terms.
  • Serbia ignored the ultimatum, Austria declared war on Serbia on 28th July 1914.

4. Explain war in the Eastern Front.

  • Germany invaded France by crossing Belgium
  • British and French were not able to stop the advance of German army
  • Both the armies dug trenches and fought from them

5. Write a short note on war on the sea.

  • The British navy commanded the North Sea.
  • Mediterranean Sea was dominated by the French and Italian navy.
  • German battle cruiser was destroyed by the British. In the Battle of Dogger bank
  • German could not break the naval blockade of Britain, it used submarines to sink the ships of the Allies.

6. Why did America enter into First World War?

America enter into First World War

  • In 1917, Germany drowned four merchant ships of America, including Lusitania with her submarines.
  • More than hundred Americans died.
  • This incident made American president Woodrow Wilson angry.
  • On the 6th April 1917 Woodrow Wilson declared war on Germany.

7. Mention any two terms of the Treaty of Versailles.

Terms of the Treaty of Versailles

  • The covenant of the League of Nations was drawn up.
  • A huge was imposed on Germany.
  • Her army was reduced.
  • The city of Danzig was internationalized.

8. Write any two fundamental principles of the League of Nations.

Fundamental principles of the League of Nations:-

  • It should improve the unity among nations and security in the world.
  • The member nations of the League should respect and safeguard without indulging in acts of aggression.
  • The member nations should solve the problems through the League of Nations.

9. What are the organs of the League of Nations?

Organs of the League of Nations:-

  • The General Assembly
  • The Council
  • The Secretariat
  • An International Court of Justice
  • International Labour Organization

10. List out any two causes for the failure of the League of Nations.

Two causes for the failure of the League of Nations

  • The Americans wanted to be the leader not the member . This is like a building without deep foundation
  • The member were permitted go out at any time
  • Japan captured Manchuria in 1931, the league opposed it. Japan resigned from the league

Causes for the failure of the League of Nations:-

IV. Answer all the questions given under each heading:

1. AMBITION OF GERMANY

[a] Who was the ruler of Germany during First World War?

Kaiser William II

[b] What did he believe?

Germany could believe that his country alone was competent to rule the whole world.

[c] What could not be tolerated by him?

He could not tolerate the British saying that the sun never sets in the British Empire.

[d] Where did he station a fleet?

Heligoland in North Sea

2. BALKAN PROBLEM

[a] Name the Balkan countries.

Serbia, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece and Montenegro.

[b] How did the First Balkan war come to an end?

By the treaty of London

[c] Why did the other Balkan countries declare war on Bulgaria?

Dispute arose between Serbia and Bulgaria in sharing the spoils of the war.

[d] What was the result of the Second Balkan war?

Bulgaria was defeated and Serbia gained more territories.

Turkey and Bulgaria approached Germany to regain their territories.

3. IMMEDIATE CAUSE

[a] When did Austria annex Bosnia and Herzegovina?

In 1908

[b] Who was the Austrian Crown prince?

Francis Ferdinand

[c] What happened to him?

Francis Ferdinand and his wife Isabella were assassinated by a Serbia lad at Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia

[d] What did Austria do?

Austria sent an ultimatum to Serbia ignored the ultimatum.

Austria declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914

4. COURSE OF THE WAR

[a] Give the duration of the First World War.

The First World War began in July, 28 1914 and lasted till November 11, 1915.

[b] Who were called Central Powers?

The countries which were on the side of Germany were called as the central powers.

[c] Who were called the Allies?

Those on the side of British as the allies.

[d] What were used in the war?

Artillery, tanks and submarines were used in the war.

5. WAR IN THE NEAR EAST FRONT

[a] When did Turkey enter the war?

In October 1914

[b] Why was it considered a terrible blow?

Turkey entered the war extending her support to the central powers. This was a terrible blow because communication between Russia and allies were cut off.

[c] Why did Britain want to capture Gallipoli Peninsula?

The British made an attempt to capture Gallipoli peninsula with a view of controlling the Dardanelles and capturing Constantinople.

[d] What were the results of Dardanelles expedition?

The Dardanelles expedition was on utter failure.

6. RESULTS OF THE WAR

[a] How were the terms of the treaties drafted?

It was on the fourteen points put forward by President Woodrow Wilson the terms of the treaties were drafted.

[b] What did Germany surrender to France?

Germany surrendered Alsace and Lorraine to France.

[c] Where was monarchy abolished?

Monarchy was abolished in Germany, Russia, Austria and Turkey.

[d] Name the New Republics.

Czechoslovakia, Poland.

7. LEAGUE OF NATIONS

[a] Name the organizations which were found before the League of Nations.

The League of Nations society (1915), the world league for peace (1917), the league of free nation association (1918) and the league nations union.

[b] Where was the League of Nations headquarters situated?

Geneva in Switzerland

[c] How should the Member Nations solve the problems?

The member nations should solve the problems arising among themselves only through the League of Nations. They should wait at least three months to year from the League of Nations.

[d] When did Japan capture Manchuria?

In 1931

VI. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING IN A PARAGRAPH:

1. How can we say that the Balkan problem led to the First World War?

The Balkan problem led to the First World War

  • The Balkan countries like Serbia, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece and Montenegro proclaimed their independence from the Ottoman Empire.
  • In 1912 the Balkan countries declared war on Turkey. This is known as First Balkan war.
  • Turkey was defeated. The war came to an end by the Treaty of London.
  • Dispute arose between Serbia and Bulgaria in sharing the spoils of the war.
  • In 1913, Bulgaria was defeated and Serbia gained more territories.
  • Turkey and Bulgaria approached Germany to regain their territories. It resulted in the war.

2. What were the results of the First World War?

The results of the First World War

  • The covenant of the League of Nations was drawn up.
  • A huge war indemnity was imposed on Germany.
  • Her army was reduced.
  • The overseas possessions of Germany were divided among the victorious nations.
  • It caused inestimable loss of property and human lives.
  • The city of Danzig was internationalized.
  • Germany surrendered Alsace and Lorraine to France the Saar Coal field to France for 15 years.

3. What were the achievements of League of Nations?

Achievements of the League of Nations:-

  • It avoided a war between Greece and Bulgaria over the border disputes.
  • It settled a dispute between Greece and Italy over the island of Corfu.
  • It solved a border issue between Peru and Columbia.
  • It League prevented the spread of many diseases.
  • It attempted to raise the standard o Education in various states.
  • It whole heartedly promoted cultural co-operation among the nations.
  • The international Court of Justice handled more than thirty cases.

4 Enumerate the causes for the failure of League of Nations.

Causes for the failure of the League of Nations:-

  • The powerful nation wanted to be a leader but not become a member.
  • The member were permitted to go out of League.
  • In 1931 Japan captured Manchuria League protested against this, Japan resigns from the League.
  • It did not have a permanent force or army.
  • The rise of dictatorship in Italy, Japan and Germany weakened the League.
  • The statesman who dominated League were called by some as “Geneva Conference of Fools”.

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