I. Choose the correct answer:
1. Early medieval period has been termed as Dark Age.
2. Feudalism was a social system based on land.
3. Prophet Mohammad founded the religion of Islam.
4. The title of lion heart was given to Richard.
5. Holy land of Christian is Jerusalem.
II. Match the following:
1. Constantine -emperor
2. Fief -land
3. Cambridge -university
4. Genoa -coastal town
5. Barbarians -tribe
III. Answer briefly:
1. What is feudalism?
- An important feature of the middle ages was feudalism.
- The word feudalism is derived from the Latin word feud or fief.
- Fief means a land held on condition of Service.
- It was essentially an agrarian system.
- The peasants had to give a portion of the Produce from the land to the lords as rent or taxes.
2. What is manor?
- A manner was a sub division of the land.
- The barons received the land from the king.
- This land was sub divided into manor.
- Each manor was given to a sub tenant.
3. What are the coastal towns and trade centres?
- Genoa and Venice were the coastal during the medieval period.
- Genoa, Florence and Venice became trading centres.
- Florence, Pisa and Milan were situated on inland trade routes.
4. How did the king get military service in the time of war?
- The king distributed the lands to barons on the conditions ofmilitary and administrative services.
- In times of war, the feudal lords supplied the military force to the king.
- So the king had to rely on the military services provided by his vassals.
- The army was not given uniform training in the kingdom.
5. Who were the leaders of the children’s crusade?
- The children’s crusade took place in 1212.
- The leaders were Nicholas of Germany and Stephen of France.
- They believed that god could mysteriously guide and guard the children in their endeavors.
- But none of the children went beyond Italy.
6. Mention some of the universities of medieval Europe?
- The University of Bologna was famous for the learning of law.
- Arabic and Hebrew were taught in Spanish university.
- The University of Oxford in England was modeled on the Paris University of France.
- The Cambridge University came into existence in the 12th century.
7. What was the aim of the crusades?
- Crusades were the holy wars of the Christians of Western Europe against the Turks.
- Jerusalem, the holy place of the Christians went under the control of Seljuk Turks.
- The Seljuk Turks were religiously intolerant people.
- The Christians wanted to save themselves from the persecution and humiliation.
- For all these reasons Christians undertook crusades.
8. Who was the authority of the church?
- By the 6th century A.D., the pope became the head of the church.
- Kings were the rulers of the kingdoms.
- Sometimes the popes were stronger than the king.
- The pope was considered as the representative of Jesus Christ.
IV. Answer all the questions given under the each following:
(a) From which word “feudalism” is derived?
- The word feudalism is derived from the Latin word fief or feud.
(b) Who were the feudal lords?
- The king divided the kingdom into several fiefs and distributed to the barons. They were the feudal lords.
(c) How was the feudal village called?
- The feudal village was called fief.
(d) What did this system prevailed in Europe?
- During the medieval period.
(a) Who was the head of the church?
- The pope was the head of the church.
(b) How was the leadership between the pope and the king?
- Sometimes the popes were stronger than the king. They developed a system of dual leadership under the popes and the kings.
(c) What was the role of pope?
- The pope was considered as the representative of Jesus Christ. He was the highest authority of the church.
(d) What was the result of the dual leadership?
- The dual leadership led to the rivalries between the church and the state.
(a) Which was the holy land of the Christians?
- Jerusalem and Bethlehem.
(b) Who gave call to the Christians all over the world?
- Pope urban II gave a call to the Christians all over the world to come together and to take arms.
(c) Where did the council meet?
- At Clermont.
(d) How many crusades have taken place?
The first four were major crusades and the last four were minor crusades.
4. Mohammed the prophet:
(a) Which was the birth place of Islam?
(b) Who was the founder of Islam?
- Prophet Mohammad.
(c) What are the important cities in Arabia?
- Mecca and Medina.
(d) What did Islam religion stress?
- Islam laid stress on the unity of god and on following moral standards and principles.
V. Answer in the paragraph:
1. Describe the barbarian invasion.
- The barbarian mention has a severe blow to the Roman Empire
- It shook up the roman solidarity.
- Barbarians like the Goths, Huns, and vandals poured into the country in large numbers.
- Their aim was to loaf the people of the conquered territories.
- This invasion disturbed the internal peace.
- Lords and the common people had no other option except accepting the new system of feudalism.
2. Write the causes for the down falloff the Roman Empire?
- The decline of the mighty Roman Empire was brought by nature and time. Hurricanes and earth quakes affected the empire.
- The inflow of wealth brought moral degradation.
- The church stood against the empire.
- The political mechanism of the Rome was not suitable to Roman Empire.
- Roman Empire became too big to be ruled.
- Colonial people suffered.
- The people lose the freedom of speech.
- The in different attitude of the masses towards their rulers became a cause for the down fall.
3. Explain the rise of Islam in Europe?
- During the middle ages, Arabia became the birth place of Islam.
- As a religion it united the various warring tribes.
- The founder of the Islam religion was Prophet Mohammad.
- Islam laid stress on the unity of god and on following high moral standards and principles.
- Mecca and Medina became two important pilgrim centres in Arabia.
- This religion contributed in the field of literature, science and medicine.
- The Arabs wanted to spread their religion in the conquered region.
- It posed a serious threat to the Christian culture resulting in crusades.
4. What were the results of the crusades?
- The crusades failed in recovering the holy places in Palestine.
- This led to the establishment of new Christian kingdoms in Spain and Portugal.
- The byzantine power lost its prestige and honour.
- Feudalism received its rudest shock from the crusades.
- The military orders were seriously affected.
- The power and prestige of the popes increased.
- It prepared the way for the discovery of new trade routes.
- Ship building industry developed with the usage of mariner’s compass.
- A spirit of enquiry was created leading to the renaissance of the 6th century.