9th History

INTELLECTUAL AWAKENING OF 6TH CENTURY B.C.

I. CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER:

1. Which period witnessed a great intellectual awakening in the world

6th century

2. How many years did the philosophy of Confucius mould and dominate the Chinese mind.

2000 years

3. Whowas the founder of Zorastrianism

Zoroaster

4. Who was the 23rd Tirthankara

Parsavanath

5. In which place Buddha got enlightenment

Bodh Gaya

II. MATCH THE FOLLOWING:

1. Zoroastrianism – Mazda

2. Jina – Conqueror of senses

3. Yasodhara – Buddha

4. Triratnas – Mahavira

5. Sangha – Buddhism

III. HEADINGS:

1. ZOROASTRIANISM:

a) Who founded Zoroastrianism?

Zoroaster.

b) Which was the wise spirit of Zoroastrianism?

Ahura mazda.

c) What type of worship represented the monotheistic basis of Zoroastrianism?

Ahura mazda was a Cult.

d) What was the name of Holy scripture of the Parsees?

Zend avesta.

2. JAINISM:

a) How many Thirthankaras were there in the Jain religion?

24 Thirthankaras.

b) Who was the earliest Thirthankara?

Rishabadeva.

c) What was the name of the last Thirthankara?

Vardhamana.

d) Who preached the four disciplines to his disciples?

Parsavanath.

3. MAHAVIRA:

a) What was the original name of Mahavira?

Vardhamana Mahavira.

b) Where was he born?

Kundagrama, near Vaisali.

c) What is meant by Jina?

Conqueror of senses.

d) For how many years did he wander and observe severe penance?

12 years.

4. BUDDHA:

a) Who founded Buddhism?

Gauthama Buddha.

b) What was his original name?

Siddhartha.

c) Where did he give his first sermon?

Deer park at Saranath.

d) Where did he get Enlightment?

Bodh Gaya.

IV. ANSWER IN BRIEF:

1. Why did Intellectual awakening start in the 6th century B.C.?

The reformers of all over the world raised their voice against the existing social beliefs and systems and endeavored to reconstruct them on a rational basis.

2. Write a short notes on Mazda?

Ahura mazda, personified as sun, fire and light.

Zoroastrians could practice Mazda worship in the form of fire worship in their own house.

For them the body is only the instrument of sprits hence the corpse did not deserve reverence or preservance.

3. What was the four disciplines preached by Mahavira to his disciples?

1. Non-injury to living beings.

2. Not to speak untruth.

3. Not to steal.

4. Not to possess.

4. Write about pitakas?

The Buddhist scriptures, known as pitakas are divided into three sections, namely, the Sutta, the vinaya and the Abhidhamma.

5. In which council was the Sangha divided into two?

In the fourth council convend during Kanishka’s reign, the sangha split into two i.e., Mahayana and Hinayana.

V. ANSWER IN PARAGRAPH:

1. Write a paragraph about Confucius?

  • Confucious was not the founder of any religion nor was he a social reformer.
  • He was a transmitter,believing in and loving the ancients.
  • Eventhough ninitialy he lived a life of luxuries,later on he became a teacher and started his school.
  • He said,”a man’s character is formed by the odes developed by the rites and perfected by music”.
  • He spoke of disciplined society and of healthy social relations.
  • Father,teacher,husband or king should protect their dependends.
  • If they faild in their responsibility revolt would take place.
  • Thus,cofucious(kung-fu-tse) was advocating a fair social order based on discipline.
  • His philosophy molted the chinese mind for more than 2000 years.

2. What was the importance of Zoroastrianism?

  • Zoroaster was the founder of Zoroastrianism.
  • The struggle between good and evil became the central theme of Zoroastrianism.
  • Zoroaster asked the people to give up their polytheistic cults.
  • He asked them to accept Ahura Mazda as the only god.
  • Zoroastians could practiced mazda worship in the form of the fire worship in their own houses.
  • Ahura Mazda, personified as sun, fire and light had been carrying on a relentless struggle against the evil forces.
  • The evil forces were ignorance, selfishness and all wices.
  • This struggle is manifested not only humans but also in all natural expressions.
  • Zoroaster’s concept of good and evil strengthened the moral base of persian society.
  • Is monotheism served the cause of social unity without involving any costly rituals.

3. Write the note on the teachings of Mahavira?

  • Mahavira is considered as the 24th thirthankara.
  • When he became an ascetic, he preached four disciplines to his disciples.
  • Ahimsa, speak the truth, not to steal and not to posses.
  • When he attained keval gnanam, at the age of 42, he became the “jina”.
  • He had no faith in god and rejected the authority of the vedas.
  • He believed that the matter and soul were two eternal elements.
  • He preached the three gems or triratnas.
  • Right knowledge, right faith and right conduct are the triratnas.
  • He had strong faith in ahimsa.
  • He did not belive in the caste system or sacrifices and yagnas.
  • He preached equality of human beings.

4. Enumerate the code of conduct that mahavira preached.

  • Jainism advocates the state of moksha or nirvana can be attained by following the triratnas.
  • The tri ratnas are right belief, right knowledge and right action.
  • The code of conduct that mahavira preached has five disciplines.
  • non injury to living beings,
  • not to utter untruth,
  • not to steal,
  • not to posses,
  • to practice celibacy
  • After the death of mahavira, Jainism split into two groups namely digambaras and swetambaras.

5. Write a paragragh on the eight fold path of Buddhism?

  • The eight fold path consists of the following principles;

(1) right belief,

(2) right thought,

(3) right speech,

(4) right action,

(5) right means of livelihood,

(6) right effort,

(7) right meditation and

(8) right remembrance or memory

  • The Buddha preached “nirvana” the ultimate goal in the life of a man.
  • The Buddha neither accepted nor rejected the existence of god.
  • He had no faith in caste system.
  • He advocated the principle of universal brotherhood.
  • He laid stress on morality.
  • He established sangha to propagate his principles and to render services to people.
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