India Location and Physiography

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The Bay of Bengal is located to the____________ of India South-east

2. Palk Strait separates India form____________ Sri Lanka

3. The most centrally located meridian is passes through the Allahabad

4. The highest peak in India Mt. Godwin Austin

5. The source of River Ganga Gangotri

6. The Himalayas are known as Abode of snow

II. Match the following

1. Pilgrim Centre  Kedarnath
2. Terai plain  Marshy Land
3. Western Ghats in Karnataka  Shayadri
4. Lava Plateau  Deccan
5. Largest lake in Kerala  Vembanad

IV. Answer the following questions briefly:

1. What are the main physical divisions of India?

They are:

  • Northern mountains
  • Northern Great Plains
  • Peninsular Plateaus
  • Coastal plains
  • Islands

2. Write any two points on the importance of the Himalayas.

The importance of the Himalayas.

  • The Himalayas prevent south west monsoon and causes snow fall and rain.
  • It forms the natural boundary for the sub-continent.
  • Most of the rivers that originate are perennial. Ex. Ganga and Yamuna.

3. Name a few well known holy places in the Northern Mountains of India.

Holy places in the Northern Mountains of India

  • Kedharnath
  • Badrinath
  • Amarnath
  • Vaishnavidevi temple

4. Name the rivers that do not form a delta on the west coast of India.

The rivers that do not form a delta on the west coast of India.

Narmada and Tapti

5. Name the islands belonging to India.

The islands belonging to India are

  1. Andaman & Nicobar island
  2. Lakshadweep island

V. Answer the following questions in a Paragraph:

1. “India is a sub-continent” – Justify.

India, a subcontinent:-

  • A continent possesses distinct characteristics of diverse,
  • Physical features,
  • Climatic conditions,
  • Natural vegetation,
  • Mineral resources,
  • Human habitations,
  • Cultural norms,
  • Ancient ethnic and linguistic groups and
  • Huge area.

These characteristics are found in India. Hence we consider India as a subcontinent.

2. “Unity in Diversity” – Explain.

Unity in Diversity:-

Land forms:-

India has unique land forms ranging from the highest peaks. Mount Godwin Austin is the highest plain and the Malabar Coastal Plains are the smallest plains.

Climate:-

The climate varies in India from the tropical to the temperate zone. Cherrapunji receives the highest rainfall and The Thar desert receives very low rainfall.

Forest:-

We have wet dense tropical forest on the Western Ghats, mangrove in the Sunderbans, shrubs in the That Desert.

Ideal habitat:-

India an ideal habitat for varieties of flora and fauna.

Secular country:-

India is a secular country with total freedom of worship. In spite of its physical, religious and racial varieties, the “Indian Culture” unites all the people. Hence India is known for her “Unity in diversity”.

3. Explain the origins of the Himalayas.

The origins of the Himalaya

  • Millions of years ago, there was only one large land mass called “Pangea”.
  • Surrounded by a water body, known as “Panthalassia”.
  • This large land mass split up into two parts.
  • Northern part known as “Angara land”
  • Southern part known as “Gondwana land”.
  • This large land mass split up the Tethys Sea which deposited their silts.
  • Due to tectonic forces uplifted to form Fold Mountains called the Himalayan ranges.

4. Mention the importance of Himalayas

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE HIMALAYAS:-

  • The presence of the Himalayas in north pre vents southwest monsoon winds and cause rainfall and snowfall.
  • If this mountain is absent, India would have been a hot and dry desert.
  • Himalayas forms a natural boundary for the sub-continent.
  • It is permanently frozen and it is a barrier to invasion.
  • Most of the rivers that originate are perennial. Ex. Ganga and Yamuna.
  • It has many hill resort and pilgrimage centers promotes tourism.
  • It provides timber to human and shelter to wildlife.

5. Write short notes on Northern plains of India.

Northern Great Plains:-

  • The Northern Great Plains are located at the south of the Himalayas.
  • It extends over a length of 2,400km.
  • It formed by the deposits of Indus, the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers.
  • It covers an area of over 7 lakh sq.km
  • Important characteristics:-
  • Bhabar (unassorted sediments)
  • The Bhabar lies along the foothills at about 8 to 16km wide. The rivers, disappears in the bhabar tract is marked by dry river courses.
  • The Terai is a marshy tract, where underground streams reappear.
  • The Bhagar represents older alluvium.
  • The Khadar is the newer alluvium.

Northern Plains can be divided into the following regions

  • Rajasthan plain
  • Punjab-Haryana plain
  • Ganga plain
  • Brahmaputra plain

6. Write a brief about Peninsular Plateau.

Peninsular Plateaus:-

  • The peninsular plateau is located to the south of northern Great Plains.
  • It is triangular in shape and covers an area of about 16lakh sq.km.
  • It is surrounded by hill ranges on all sides, the Aravalli, Vindhya, Satpura and Rajmahal ranges in the north, Western Ghats the west and the Eastern ghats in the east.
  • The average height of this plateau 600-900mts above sea level.
  • The general slope is from west to east.
  • The Narmada River divides the peninsular plateau into two unequal parts. The northern part is called the ‘Central Highlands’ and the south part is called the ‘Deccan Plateaus’.

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