10th Geography

INDIA – CLIMATE

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. India experiences Tropical Monsoon Climate

2. The coastal areas enjoy Equable

3. The place that gets rain from Western disturbance is Punjab

4. The mountains which lie parallel to the direction of the Southwest Monsoon Wind is Aravalli

5. The local storms in the northeastern part of India during hot weather season are called Norwesters

II. Match the following

1. Burst of Monsoon  June to September
2. Norwesters  Local Storms in Northeast India
3. Water conservation activities  Total involvement of local people
4. The North East Monsoon Season  October to February
5. Highest rainfall place  Mawsynram in Cherrapunji

IV. Answer the following questions:

1. Name the factors determining the climate of India.

The factors determining the climate of India

  • Latitude
  • Altitude
  • Distance from the sea
  • Wind
  • Position of Mountains

2. What do you mean by Monsoon?

Monsoon is the world derived from Arabic word Mausim means season. The winds which blow in a particular season from particular direction reverses from summer and winter.

Example- south west monsoon & north east monsoon

3. What are the main features of tropical monsoon type of climate?

The salient features of Tropical monsoon climate:-

  • The Monsoon winds are classified into Southwest Monsoon and Northeast Monsoon on the basis of the direction from where they blow.
  • They are caused due to the differential heating of land and sea.
  • The main feature of monsoon winds is alternation of seasons which determines the climate of the India.

4. What are Jet Streams and how do they affect the climate of India?

Jet Streams:-

Air currents in the upper layers of the atmosphere is known as Jet streams. It could determine the arrival and departure of monsoon winds in India.

5. Name the regions of heavy rainfall in India.

The regions of heavy rainfall in India:-

Middle Ganga Valley,

Western Ghats,

Eastern Maharashtra,

Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.

6. What do you mean by the “Burst of Monsoon”?

South west monsoon winds are moisture laden winds, when they approach southern part of Kerala it causes violent thunderstorm indicating the onset of monsoon. This is called as monsoon burst.

V. Answer the following in a paragraph each:

1. Analyze any two features determining the climate of India

Altitude:-

Temperature decreases with increasing at the rate of 1degree of Celsius for every 165

The places situated at the higher altitudes are cooler as compared to places in plains.

Eg. Delhi and Shimla located at the same region but at different altitude.

Distance from the sea:-

The places to the north of Tropic of cancer, experience “continental climate” summer is extremely hot winter is extremely cold due to the location in far from the sea.

The places to the South of Tropic enclosed on the three sides by Arabian sea, Indian ocean and Bay of Bengal, experiences “Equable climate”.

Position of the mountains:-

Positions of mountains play a vital role in determining the climate of any place. For example,

The great Himalayan range in the North India obstructs the bitter cold winds from central Asia to India.

2. Give the characteristic features of monsoon winds.

FEATURES OF THE MONSOON:-

Uneven distribution of rainfall during the year:-

The South West monsoon causes over 80 percent of the rainfall over the country during June to September

Influence of Mountains:-

The winds strike the Western Ghats and bring heavy rainfall on the windward side.

Gujarat and Rajasthan receives little rainfall due to absence of mountains.

Tropical Cyclone:-

The intensity and distribution of rainfall are determined by a series of tropical depressions or Tropical Cyclone.

Erratic Nature of the rainfall:-

It is difficult to make any general statement describing the rainfall in any areas which received heavy rainfall in one season may experience drought rain may be delayed.

Sometime the rain disappears.

Monsoon rains have great effect on the country’s economy:-

The prosperity of India depends on the success or failure of the Monsoon.

3. Describe any one of the branch of South West Monsoon.

Arabian Sea Branch:-

  • It is one of the branch of South west Monsoon.
  • The more powerful Arabian Sea brings heavier rainfall.
  • It strikes against the Western Ghats
  • This moisture laden wind ascend the slopes gives heavy rainfall to western coastal region. Mumbai gets 150cms heavy rainfall.
  • The second part blow through the Vindhya-Satpura strikes Rajmahal cause heavy rainfall in Chotanagpur region.
  • The third part moves towards Rajasthan where the Aravalli stand parallel to the direction of this wind does not give any rain to Rajasthan.
  • This wind combines with the Bay of Bengal branch obstructed by the Shiwalik hills gives a good rainfall.

4. Describe rain water harvesting.

Rain Water Harvesting:-

  • India experiences Tropical monsoon type of climate. It gives a seasonal rainfall.
  • It is highly erratic with scanty rainfall.
  • It is necessary to save rain water.
  • We must allow this water to penetrate into deep water table and tap this water when it is needed.
  • To prevent surface run-off we must harvest the rainwater for future.
  • Rain harvesting is direct collection and storage of water recharged into the ground for withdrawal later.
  • Through the rain harvesting we can understand the real value of rain.

5. What is water management? Give the basic requirement of Water conservation.

WATER MANAGEMENT:-

  • Water management implies the best use of available water controlling its depletion and degradation for our future.
  • Water is an indispensable resource it is important to manage water resources in an integrated manner. Water management must be under taken at all levels.
  • The basic requirements for water conservation activities are:
  • The total involvement, co-operation and participation of all local people.
  • The role of women in managing house hold water needs.
  • To treat water an economic commodity
  • To be used in the profitable and satisfying manner.
  • In the distribution both equity and quality must be ensured.
  • We can save the water through “rain water harvesting” strategy.