Imperialism in India and China

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Germany and Italy became unified countries in 1870

2. A great demand for the raw materials was created by

Industrial revolution

3. The policy of imperialism followed by the European countries from 1870 – 1945 was known as

New imperialism

4. China was politically independent under the Manchu rule

5. The movement of goods was speeded up by the development of  Railways

6. The “Sphere of influence” was adopted by the European countries in China

7. The English East India company was formed in 1600

8. The French East India company was established by Colbert

9. The second opium war came to end by the Treaty of Peking

10. The policy formulated by England and USA for China Open door policy

11. The Mughal emperor who gave permission to English East India Company to setup trading post at Surat Jahangir

12. The Republic of China was established under Dr. Sun Yat Sen

II. Match the following:

1. The Carnatic wars – End of French influence in India

2. Protectorate – France

3. Racial Discrimination – Africa

4. Island of Hong Kong – England

5. International colony – China

III, Answer the following briefly:

1. Define Imperialism.

  • The word imperialism derives from the Latin word “Imperium” meaning “Power”.
  • The term imperialism refers to the policy of extending a country’s rule over the other political and economic interest of another nation to exploit its natural resources.

2. What is Colonialism?

  • The policy adopted by the European countries from AD1492-AD1763 is known as Colonialism.
  • During this period England, France, Spain and Portugal established their colonies in the Asian and American continents.

3. Write about Military Imperialism.

USA invaded Iraq and forced it to have sort of government favorable to USA. This is called as the military imperialism

4. How do you say that the Industrial Revolution is an important cause for the rise of imperialism?

  • It resulted in a great increase in production.
  • It created a great demand for raw materials and new markets in Asia and Africa.
  • A great progress in the means of transport and communication.
  • The development of railways speeded up the movement of goods between colonies.

5. What do you know about economic or tariff control?

Economic or Tariff Control:-

  • The powerful nation could take over the complete charge of the finances of a weak and backward region, or its tariff system.
  • Turkey was under Ottoman Turks

6. Write a short note on Mandate system.

Mandate System:-

  • This was the last form of the new imperialism.
  • It emerged at the Paris Peace Conference (1919), at the suggestion of General Jan Smut of South Africa.
  • The League delegated its authority, to various states as its “mandatories”.

7. What were causes for the first opium war?

Causes for the first opium war

  • The British grew opium in India and sold it in china for Chinese goods and gold
  • The Chinese thought their peace was disturbed by the Europeans.
  • European was irritated by the high custom duties.
  • The British, had lions share in opium trade.

8. How did China become an International Colony?

  • The U.S.A. and England formulated the Open Door Policy or “Me too policy”.
  • The Chinese territories were partitioned among the foreign powers for trade rights. Thus China became an international colony.

9. Write a note on Taiping Rebellion.

  • The Americans, the French and other foreign countries signed similar treaties with China.
  • The Chinese rebelled against the native Manchu kings and the foreigners in 1854.
  • The rebellion was known as Taiping Rebellion.

IV. Answer all the questions given under each heading:

1. CAUSES FOR THE RISE OF IMPERIALISM

[a] What became the fashion for the later part of the 19th century?

The later part of the nineteenth century saw extreme nationalistic ideals in Europe.

[b] What was the “White men’s burden”?

It was “white man’s burden” to civilize the backward and uncivilized native people of Africa and ASIA

[c] Why were the European Nations forced to acquire new colonies?

To achieve a balance with their neighbors and competitors.

[d] What promoted the spirit of Nationalism?

Germany and Italy were unified, many nations developed pride over their race, culture and language and started feeling superior to other countries.

2. BATTLE OF PLASSEY AND BUXAR

[a] Who was the Nawab of Bengal in 1757?

Siraj-ud-daulah

[b] Who introduced the subsidiary Alliance?

Lord Wellesley

[c] Name the policy of Lord Dalhousie?

Doctrine of Lapse

[d] When was Queen Victoria’s proclamation issued?

In 1858

3. IMPERIALISM IN CHINA

[a] Why was the trade restricted to the city of Canton and Macao?

The trade with these foreign powers was restricted to the cities of canton and Macao from 1757 by the Chinese emperor. But the Europeans were irritated by the Chinese behavior.

[b] What were the goods sold by the Chinese to the British?

Tea and coffee

[c] Name the Chinese Empress. How was she known as?

Empress dowager, known as old Buddha.

[d] Who formulated open door policy?

U.S.A. and England.

4. BOXER REBELLION

[a] What was the result of the Sino – Japanese war?

China was defeated by Japan

[b] Name the island ceded by China to Japan

Formosa Island

[c] What led to the outbreak of Boxer – Rebellion?

The empress dowager, known as old Buddha decided to divert the public anger her. She made the Chinese youths turn their anger towards the foreign powers which led to the outbreak of boxer

rebellion.

[d] What did the Boxers do?

The boxer attacked the French, British, German, Japanese and U.S. settlements and all the Christians and all the Christians in 1899.

VI. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING IN A PARAGRAPH:

1. What were the causes for imperialism?

Causes for the rise of Imperialism:-

Industrial Revolution:-

Resulted in a great increase in production.

It created a great demands for raw materials and new markets in Asia and Africa.

National Security:-

The sense of national security and self-sufficiency among the European political groups instigated colonial imperialism.

Nationalism:-

Germany and Italy nations developed pride over their race, culture and language and started feeling superior to other countries.

Balance of power:-

European nations were forced to acquire new colonies to achieve a balance of Power.

Discovery of New routes:-

The discovery of new sea routes promoted the spirit of imperialism to exploit the wealth of the countries.

Growth of Population:-

The population growth forced them in search of new lands and careers abroad.

State of Anarchy:-

There was no international organization to maintain peace and security among countries. This state of anarchy supported the colonial race.

2. Explain the techniques of imperialism.

Techniques of Imperialism:-

Conquest and Annexation:-

  • The Spaniards, the Frenchmen and the British used to send soldiers to distant.
  • They overpowered the native chiefs.
  • This is the method of Conquest and Annexation.

Concession or Franchise:-

  • An exclusive right to exploit some economic resources, in a “backward” region and it was called a concession or franchise.

Leasehold:-

  • An exclusive right to exploit economic resources with the grant of lease
  • German acquired leasehold of Shantung Peninsula in China for ninetynine years.

Sphere of Influence:-

  • An exclusive preferential right to exploit and develop a backward region economically, and to establish control over it.
  • British (southern) sphere of influence. Russian (northern) sphere of influence.

Protectorate:-

  • An indirect exercise of political control of a powerful control of a powerful nation over a weak nation through a native puppet ruler.
  • In 1912 France established a protectorate over Morocco.

Economic or Tariff Control:-

  • The powerful nation could take over the complete charge of the finances of a weak and backward region or its tariff system.
  • This method was called Economic or Tariff control.

3. What were the effects of imperialism?

Effects of Imperialism:-

Positively speaking:-

  • The powerful nations developed the transport and communication.
  • They improved medical care, education
  • They introduced new farming methods, to get increased food production.

Negatively speaking:-

  • The colonies had no freedom.
  • Imperialism le to the exploitation of the natural resources of the colonies.
  • The colonies were used as the suppliers of raw materials and markets for finished products.
  • The colonies plunged into poverty.
  • The policy of racial discrimination was practiced in some colonies.

4. Describe first and second opium wars.

First opium war

  • The British grew opium in India and sold it in China for Chinese goods and gold.
  • European were irritated by the high custom duties.
  • The British, had lions share in opium trade resorted to war in 1839. The war was called as First Opium war.

Taiping Rebellion:-

  • The Americans, the French and other foreign countries singed similar treaties with China.
  • The rebellion was known as Taiping Rebellion.

Second Opium War:-

  • The foreigners demanded more ports for trade.
  • The Chinese government rejected the demand.
  • British and French bombarded and captured Canton in 1857. It was called as the Second Opium War.