FASCISM IN ITALY .A.D. 1922 – A.D. 1945

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The founder of the Fascist Party was Benito Mussolini

2. Mussolini organized the National Fascist Party in November 1921

3. Mussolini provided Stable government

4. The great relief was provided to the workers by Charter of Labour

5. Mussolini made common cause with Hitler

6. Mussolini left the League of Nations in 1937

II. Match the following:

1. Duce  Mussolini
2. Black Shirts  Mussolini’s followers
3. Ovra  Secret Police of Mussolini
4. March on Rome  1922
5. Albania  1939

III. Answer the following in brief:

1. What does the term “Fascism” mean?

The term “Fascism” is derived from the Latin word “Fasces” means a bundle or group.

2. What were the four pillars of Fascism?

The four pillars of Fascism

* Charismatic leadership

* Single party rule

* Terror and

* Economic control.

3. Trace the reasons for the rise of Fascism.

The prevailing economic, social and political conditions were very favourable to the rise of fascism in Italy.

4. How did Mussolini seize power?

  • On October 30, 1922, the Fascists organized a march to Rome and showed their strength.
  • Emperor Victor Emanuel III invited Mussolini to form the Government.
  • The Fascists seized power without bloodshed.

5. Write any two achievements of Mussolini.

Two achievements of Mussolini

  • He provided a stable government.
  • Mussolini brought order and discipline in the industrial field.
  • The “Charter of Labour” issued by him provided great relief to workers”.
  • Marshes were drained. Canals were dug.

6. How did he put an end to the conflict between the Pope and King?

  • The ongoing 60 years conflicts between Papacy and the Italian government came to an end by the Later Treaty of 1929, signed between the Pope and the Mussolini.
  • Mussolini recognized the Pope in the Vatican City in turn the Pope recognized the king in Rome.

IV. Answer all the questions given under each Caption:

1. FASCIST PARTY

[a] Who was the founder of Fascist party?

Benito Mussolini

[b] Give the slogans of Mussolini.

“Believe, obey, fight and the more force, the more honour”.

[c] What were the aims of Fascism?

“Exaltation of the state, protection of private property, spirited foreign policy”

[d] What was the motto of Fascism?

“Everything within the state, nothing against the state, nothing outside the state”

2. ACHIEVEMENTS OF FASCISM

[a] What did Mussolini bring in the industrial field?

The charter of labour

[b] What do you know about the “Charter of Labour”?

“The charter of labour” issued by him provided great relief to workers. Industries were freed from the strike epidemic.

[c] What were the measures taken by Mussolini in the agricultural field?

Mussolini took several measures to increase the production. Marshes were drained, canals were dug.

[d] When was Lateran Treaty signed?

In 1929

3. AGGRESSIVE FOREIGN POLICY OF MUSSOLINI

[a] What was Mussolini’s slogan before the Nation?

“Italy must expand or perish”

[b] When did he capture Albania?

In 1939

[c] Name the island bombarded by the Allied Forces.

Sicily

[d] What was the end of Mussolini?

Mussolini was shot dead by his own countrymen in 1945.

V. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. What were the achievements of Fascism under Mussolini?

The achievements of Fascism under Mussolini

  • He provided a stable government.
  • Mussolini brought order and discipline in the industrial field.
  • The “Charter of Labour” issued by him provided great relief to workers.
  • Marshes were drained & Canals were dug.
  • The ongoing 60 years conflicts between Papacy and the Italian government came to an end by the Latern Treaty of 1929, signed between the Pope and the Mussolini.
  • Mussolini recognized the pope in the Vatican city, in turn the Pope recognized the king in Rome.

2. Write a paragraph on Mussolini’s aggressive foreign policy.

Aggressive foreign policy that ends in disaster:-

  • Mussolini’s slogan before the nation was “Italy must expand or perish”.
  • In 1936, he annexed Ethiopia.
  • He left the League of Nations in 1937.
  • He captured Albania in 1939.
  • He joined the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis.
  • Mussolini began to follow vigorous and forward foreign policy.
  • He was determined to raise the prestige of Italy.