9th Civics



1. Dravidan Hostel for non Brahmin students was run by Dr. Natesa Mudhaliar

2. Dr.Muttulakshmi abolished Devadasi system

3. Self respect movement was led by Periyaar.

4. First amendment to the fundamental rights for social reservation polishes to the state was brought by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

5. Panchami land Act distributes lands to Scheduled communities.


1. What are the inequalities of the society in Tamil Nadu.

Sudras and Panchamas were deprived education, government jobs, right to temple entry, property and usage of public paths and water sheds.

Such a system resulted in exploitation of majority of people by the people of higher classes.

2. What are the results of the Bakthi Movement?

Due to bhakthi movement the temple system became a major socio political economical factor.

The brahmins by invoking ‘Agamas’ captured the priesthood in the rich temples.

3. Write a short on justice party.

Pitty Thiyagaraja chetty and Dr. T.M. Nair organized a socio political movement popularly known as the Justice party.

4. Who condemned the Varna and caste system?

The siddhas and Ramalinga Vallalar and Vaikundaswamy in Tamil Nadu disapproved caste system.

Mahatrma Phule and Sahu Maharaj in Maharashtra, Narayana Guru in Kerala, Ayodhidasa Pandithar in Tamil Nadu condemned both varna and caste.

5. What is meant by self respect marriages?

It was started by E.V.R. He conducted a lot of self respected marriages, which means marriage without any rituals.

6. Define child labor.

Child labor means a working child who is between 6 and 15 years of age, not attending school during the day, and working under an employer or learning some trade.


1. Write some of the social issues in Tamil Nadu.

  • Social divisions exist in every country.
  • But India’s caste system is a unique one.
  • Here social status, responsibilities, social religious privileges and occupational positions have been determined by birth.
  • Large sections of manual workers have been termed as Sudras and Panchamas.
  • Such a system, resulted in exploitation of majority of people by the people of higher castes.

2. Write a note on Untouchability.

  • Untouchability in India is worse than slavery and ‘Apartheid’.
  • Until the advent of the British rule and during the British rule the untouchables were treated as out castes.
  • They were not only untouchables but also unseeable, unapproachable, and they had no right to education, to residence in general villages and towns, to use public path and watersheds, to enter temples.’
  • Even in the early 20th century Panchamas and sometimes Sudras were not allowed to use the public transport and public restaurants.
  • In Tamil Nadu Ayothiadsas Pandithar suggested conversions to Buddhism.

3. What was the government provision to child labor prevention?

  • Article 24 of the Indian constitution mentions explicitly that no child below the age of 14 shall be employed to work in any factory or mine.
  • At least 13 major legislative enactments for children have been made.
  • Factories Act of 1948, Mines Act of 1952 were brought in different states.
  • Free and compulsory primary education midday meal schemes are meant to reduce the child labor.

4. Write a note on Transgender in Tamil Nadu.

  • The term transgender (TG) was popularized in the 1970’s describing people who wanted to live cross gender without sex reassignment surgery.
  • Tamil Nadu became the first state in the country to recognize transgender as a separate gender and issue ration card to them.
  • Members of the Transgender community in Chennai launched the matrimonial website for their clan.
  • Trans-women by birth are not physically woman.
  • But by soul and heart, they consider themselves women.
  • Tamil Nadu is the only state in India that has given a gender status to transsexual.

5. Describe briefly about the unorganized labor.

  • The unorganized sector workers include agricultural laborers, small and marginal farmers, forest workers, fisher fold, beedi rollers, garment markers, construction workers etc.
  • Having no fixed employer and no labor protective arrangements.
  • Unorganized women labor is another social issue.
  • Attempts are being made to improve the service conditions of the domestic helps.
  • Balawadis, anganwadis are being promoted to take care of children.

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