8th History

THE GREAT MUGHALS

I. Choose the correct answer:-

1. The first Battle of Panipat was fought in A.D 1526

a) 1536            b) 1526            c) 1506

2. Shershah has been called as the “Fore – runner of Akbar.

a) Akbar         b) Humayun   c) Shah Jahan

3. Jahangir set up a “ Chain of Justice”

a) Aurangazeb b) Jahangir     c) Babur

4. Guru Arjun Dev was the fifth sikh guru

a) Fifth            b) Ninth           c) Tenth

5. Babu defeated Rana Sanga in the Battle of Kanwah

a) First Battle of Panipat

b) Battle of Kanwah

c) Battle of Gaghra

6. The Father of modern currency is Shershah

a) Babur           b) Shershah      c) Akbar

7. Chand Bibi was the ruler of Ahmed nagar

a) Ahmed nagar b) Bijapur      c) Akbar

8. Akbar’s tomb at Sikhandara was built by Jahangir

a) Nurjahan      b) Jahangir       c) ShaJahan

9. Akbar ascended the throne at the age of 14

a) 13                b) 14                c) 15

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Humayun means Fortunate.

2. In the second Battle of Panipat, Akbar defeated Hemu.

3. The reign of Shahjahan has been called as the “Golden Age of the Mughals”.

4. Tansen lived in the court of Akbar.

5. The last Sultan of Delhi was Ibrahim Lodi.

6. Babur became the ruler at the age of 11.

7. Babur defeated Medini Rai in the battle of Chauderi.

8. Babur wrote his autobiography called Tuzuk-i-Babri.

9. The last great Mughal emperor was Aurangazeb.

III. Match the following:

A

1. Rana sanga  (a) 1587
2. Din – I – Ilahi  (b) Revenue system
3. Second Battle of Panipat  (c) Ruler of Mewar
4. Raja Toolar mal  (d) 1556

Ans. 1 – (C), 2 – (a), 3 – (d), 4 – (b)

B

1. Sherkhan  a) Lion king
2. Jahangir  b) king of the world
3. NurJahan  c) Light of the Palace
4. ShahJahan  d) Conqueror of the world

Ans : 1 – a, 2 – e, 3 – d, 4 – c, 5 – b

IV. Answer in one word

1. When was the Battle of Kanwah fought? A.D.1527

2. How is Jahangir’s Autobiography known as? Tuzuk – I – Jahangiri

3. Who was Akbar’s – guardian? Bairamkhan

4. Who was known as the “light of the world”? Nur Jahan

V. Answer the following questions:-

1. How did Babu established the Mughal Empire in India?

(i) Daulat Khan Lodi invited Babur to invade India.

(ii) Babur accepted invitation and invaded India.

(iii) He met Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat on 21st April 1526 and the First Battle of Panipat started.

(iv) Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed in the battle field.

(v) The rule of Delhi sultanate was brought to an end.

(vi) Thus Babur laid the foundation for the Mughal empire in India.

2. Sketch the role of NurJahan in the Mughal History?

 (i) Jahangir married Nurjahan in 1611.

(ii) Nurjahan was an intelligent, educated and cultured women

(iii) Although Jahangir was the King, she exercised the real power.

(iv) The period between 1611 – 1626 may be called as the Age of Nurjahan.

(v) But after the death of jahangir in A.D.1627. She lost her importance.

3. Write a note on the currency reforms of shershah.

(i) Shershah abolished the old and mixed currency.

(ii) He fixed the ratio between copper and silver coins.

(iii) He issued silver and gold coins.

(iv) These coins bore his name in Devanagiri scripts.

(v) These currency reforms were formed to be useful to improve the general economic condition of the nation.

(vi) Hench he has been called the father of modern currency”.

4. List any four causes for the downfall of the Mughal empire in India.

(1) Aurangazeb’s religious policy.

i) The most important cause was the religious policy of Aurangazeb.

ii) He ill– treated the Hindus, the Rajputs and the Sikhs.

iii) This made them the deadly enemies against the Mughals.

(2) Vast expanse of the Mughal empire.

i) The Mughal empire became very vast.

ii) It was very difficult for the Mughal rulers to control the distance parts of the empire.

3) Weakness of Aurangazeb’s Successors

i) The successors of Aurangazeb were very weak.

ii) So they could not check the disintegration of the empire.

4) Absence of the law of Primogeniture

i) The absence of the law of primogeniture was another cause for their downfall.

ii) There was a war of succession among the sons after the death of each Mughal emperor.

5. First battle of Panipat – write a short note.

i) Daulat Khan Lodi invited Babur to invade India.

ii) babur accepted this invitation and invaded India.

iii) Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed in the battle field.

iv) The rule of Delhi Sultanate was brought to an end.

6. Why is Shahjahan called the Prince of Builders?

Shahjahan has been called as the “Prince of Builders” and “Engineer king”. He found the Mughal cities in Red Sandstone and left them in marbles. He built a new capital “Shahjahanabad”.

7. Trace the Rajput policy of Akbar.

i) Akbar followed cordial relations towards the Rajputs.

ii) He married Jodhbai, the Princess of Jaipur.

iii) Akbar abolished “Jizya” and “Pilgrimage taxes.

8. What do you know about the last days of Shah Jahan?

i) Shahjahan fell ill in A.D.1657.

ii) A war of Succession broke out among his four sons.

iii) His third son Aurangazeb imprisoned Shah Jahan in A.D.1658.

iv) He Passed away in A.D.1666.

VI. Answer the following:-

1. Whose period is known as the “Golden of the Mughals”?why?

i) The region of Shahjahan is known as the “Golden Age of the Mughal’s.

ii) The power and prestige of the Mughal empire reached its height during his time.

iii) There was both prosperity and poverty during his period.

Prince of Builders:

i) Shahjahan is called the “Prince of Builders” and “Engineer king”.

ii) He found the Mughal cities in Red sandstone and left them in white Marbles.

iii) He build a new capital “Shahjahanabad”

Jama Masjid:

i) It was build by Shah Jahan at Delhi in white Marbles.

ii) It is considered to be one of the largest mosques in the world.

The Taj Mahal:

i) The Taj mahal is the most famous building of Shah Jahan.

ii) It was built at Agra on the banks of river Yamuna in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz.

iii) It is considered as one of the seven wonders of the world and a dream in marble.

iv) It was built by Ustad is a Chief architect of that time.

v) It’s estimated cost was about Rs.20 Lakhs.

vi) It took nearly 22 years to complete it.

Other Arts:

i) Fine arts like music, Painting and literature reached a high and of development during the time of Shahjahan.

ii) He was a great Patron of arts and letters.

iii) Hence the reign of Shahjahan is known as the “Golden age of the Mughals”.

2. Give a brief account on the administration of the Mughals.

Central administration.

i) The Mughal administration system was in the nature of a military rule and was a centralized despotism.

ii) The Emperor or Padshah had all powers in his hands.

iii) He was an absolute ruler.

iv) He was regarded as the “Shadow of God on Earth”.

v) He was assisted by a council of ministers.

Provincial administration

i) For administration convenience the empire was divided into a number of provinces known as “Subas”.

ii) Each suba was under a subedar or Governor.

iii) During Akbar’s time there were 15 Subas.

iv) The Subedar was in charge of the subas.

v) Each sarkar was further divided into “Parganas”.

Revenue Administration:

i) The main source of income was the land revenue.

ii) Raja Todar mal, the famous Revenue Minister helped Akbar in this field.

iii) Akbar made improvement on Shershah’s land revenue system. So Shershah was called the Fore-runner of Akbar.

iv) Akbar introduced “Zabti” system.

v) All the lands were measured with an uniform standard of measurement.

vi) Tax could be paid in cash.

vii) The officers were instructed to be kind with the peasants.

Military administration:

i) The Mughal army consisted of infantry, artillery, cavalry and elephantry.

ii) Cavalry was an important branch of the army.

Judicial administration:

i) The king was the fountain head of Justice.

ii) He was assisted by the Chief Qazi.

iii) Cases were tried according to Quaranic law.

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