8th History

RISE OF THE MARATHAS

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The tutor of Shivaji was Deelaji Khonda dev

a) Dadaji Khonda dev               b) Shahji Bohnsh        c) Baji Rao

2. Shivaji had a council of 8 ministers called “Ashtapradhan”.

a) 7                               b) 8                           c) 9

3. The first peshwa was Balaji Viswanath

a) Balaji Viswanath      b) Balaji Baji rao          c) baji Rao

4. Treaty of Purandhar was signed between Raja jai singh and Shivaji

a) Raja Jaisingh                        b) Afzal khan              c) Shaistakhan

5. To subdue Shimiji the Sultan of Bijapur sent Afzal Khan

a) Afzal Khan              b) Sayistakhan                         c) Sherkhan

6. I A.D.1674, Shivaji got himself coronated at Raigash

a) Durandhar               b) Jorna                       c) Raigash

7. Shivaji did at Raigash

a) Purandhar                b) Torna                       c) Raigash

8. During Shivaji’s period justice was administered according to Hindu laws

a) Hindu laws              b) Sikh laws                 c) Muslim laws

9. The greatest of the pashwas was Baji Rao

a) Balaji Vishwanath    b) Baji Rao      c) Balaji baji Rao

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. The Marathas adopted Gverilla warfare.

2. The sultan of Bijapur sent Afzalkhan to Subdue Shivaji.

3. The Prime Minister of the Maratha Empire was called Peshwa.

4. After Aurangazeb’s death Bahadur Shah became the Mughal Emperor.

5. The territory ruled by Shivaji was known was Swarajya.

6. Guerilla warfare means Irregular warfare.

7. Shivaji father was Shahaji Bonslo.

8. Shivaji assumed the title Chahapati at Raigash.

9. Zamindari system was abolished by Shivaji.

III. Match the following.

1. Baji Rao – a) Persia

2. Nadir Shah – b) Ashtapradhan

3. Nyaadhish – c) King of Afghanistan

4. Ahmed Shah Abdhali – d) Forward policy

Ans : 1 d, 2 a, 3 b, 4 c

IV. Answer in one word:-

1. When was the third battle of Panipat fought?

Ans : 1761

2. In which year did Nadir Shah invade India?

Ans : 1739

3. When was the Treaty of Purandhar signed?

Ans : 1665

4. Who was known as “Mountain – Rat?

Ans : Shivaji

5. Where was Shivaji born?

Shiyner hill fort

6. Who was the eldest son of Shivaji?

Sambhaji

7. Who led the Maratha forces in the III Battle of panipat?

Sadasiva Rao

8. Who was the third Pashwa?

Balaji baji Rao

9. Who was called the founder of the Peshwa rule?

Balaji Viswanath.

V. Answer the following questions:

1. Explain briefly the conflict between Shivaji and Afzal Khan.

i) To Subdue Shivaji the Sultan of Bijapur deputed Afzal Khan to bring Shivaji dead or alive.

ii) Shivaji came to know of the treacherous plan of Afzal Khan.

iii) He made preparation to meet Afzal Khan.

iv) At the appointed place Afzal khan met and embraced Shivaji and tightened his grips.

v) With his right hand he tried to kill Shivaji.

2. How did Shivaji attack Shaista Khan?

i) In 1660 A.D. Aurangazeb sent Sayistakhan, the Governor of Deccan to check the activities of Shivaji.

ii) Sayistakhan camped at Poona.

iii) At night, Shivaji entered the house in the form of a marriage party and attacked Sayistakhan, who was fast asleep.

iv) Sayistakhan escaped losing his thump.

3. What were the causes for the defeat of the Marathas the third Battle of Panipat?

i) The Maratha’s policy of aggression and plunder brought about their downfall.

ii) The Marathas lost the Sympathies of their own relionists the Rajputs, the jats and the Sikhs.

iii) Ahmed Shah Abdali’s army was more trained and disciplined than the Maratha army.

4. Write a note on the invasion of nadir Shah.

i) Nadir Shah wanted to Plunder the immense wealth of India.

ii) He also wanted to earn name and fame by conquering the distant territories.

iii) He came to know that India was ruled by a weak and incompetent ruler Muhammad Shah.

iv) So he invaded India in 1739. He captured Peshwar.

v) Thousands of people killed.

VI. Answer in detail :

1. Narrate the career and achievements of Shivaji.

Early life:

i) Shivaji was born in 1627A.D at Shivner hill fort near poone.

ii) His father was Shahji Bhonsle. His mother was Jija bai.

iii) Shahji Bhonsle married Tukabai and neglected his first wife Jijabai and Shivaji.

iv) Hence he was brought up by his tutar and Guru Dadaji Khonda Dev.

v) Hee learned the puranic legends and the stories of the Ramayana and the Mahabharatha throught his mother.

CONQUESTS:

Shivaji conquered the forts of Purandhar, Torna and kalian from the Sultan of Bijapur.

Shivaji, and Bijapur Sultan

i) Shivaji, the Sultan of Bijapur deputed Afzal khan to bring Shivaji dead or alive.

ii) Shivaji came to know of the treacherous plan of Afzal Khan.

iii) He made preparation to meet Afzal khan.

iv) with his right hand, he tried to kill Shivaji.

Shivaji and the Mughals:

i) In 1660 A.D., Aurangazeb sent sayistakhan the Governor of Deccan to check the activities of Shivaji.

ii) Sayistakhan camped at Poona.

iii) At night, Shivaji entered the house and attacked Saysitakhan, who was fast asleep.

iv) Sayistakhan escaped losing his thumb.

2. Give an account of the maratha empire under the Peshwas.

i) The Prime Minister of the Maratha Empire was called the Peshwa.

ii) As the successors of Shivaji became weak the Peshwas became the actual rules of the Maratha empire.

iii) They proved to be efficient administrators.

iv) The rule of peshwas started from 1713 A.D

v) Balaji viswanath was the first Peshwa.

Peshwa Balaji viswanath:

(1713 A.D 1720 A.D)

i) Balaji viswanath became the first Peshwa under the Maratha emperor Sahu.

ii) He was called as the founder of the Peshwa rule.

iii) He made Pershwaship hereditary.

iv) He revived the greatness of the Maratha’s. He died in 1720 A.D.

Peshwa Baji Rao:

(1720 A.D – 1740 A.D)

i) Baji Rao was the son of Peshwa Balaji Viswanath.

ii) He became the Peshwa after the death of his father.

iii) On account of his great ability he was regared as the greatest of the Peshwa’s.

iv) He wanted to expand the maratha Power in the North.

v) He followed a “Forward Policy”.

vi) He compelled the Nizam of Hyderabad to sign a peace treaty.

vii) He died in 1740 A.D.

Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao

(1740 A.D – 1761 A.D)

i) He was the third Pashwa.

ii) He had the able guidance of his cousin sadasiva Rao.

iii) The Maratha Power attained its Zenith in 1758 A.D.

iv) In 1761 A.D the Maratha Power reached its climax.

v) By the Power of the Marathas came to an end with the third Battle of Panipat in 1761.

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